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Metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 precursor (mGluR3) [GPRC1C] [MGLUR3]


Profiling gene expression in the human dentate gyrus granule cell layer reveals insights into schizophrenia and its genetic risk.

Specific cell populations may have unique contributions to schizophrenia but may be missed in studies of homogenate tissue. Here laser capture microdissection followed by RNA sequencing (LCM-seq) was used to transcriptomically profile the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus (DG-GCL) in human hippocampus and contrast these data to those obtained from bulk hippocampal homogenate. We identified widespread cell-type-enriched aging and genetic effects in the DG-GCL that were either absent or directionally discordant in bulk hippocampus data. Of the ~9 million expression quantitative trait loci identified in the DG-GCL, 15% were not detected in bulk hippocampus, including 15 schizophrenia risk variants. We created transcriptome-wide association study genetic weights from the DG-GCL, which identified many schizophrenia-associated genetic signals not found in transcriptome-wide association studies from bulk hippocampus, including GRM3 and CACNA1C. These results highlight the improved biological resolution provided by targeted sampling strategies like LCM and complement homogenate and single-nucleus approaches in human brain.

MeSH Terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Aging
  • Bipolar Disorder
  • Dentate Gyrus
  • Depressive Disorder, Major
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neurons
  • Quantitative Trait Loci
  • Schizophrenia
  • Transcriptome
  • Young Adult

Hippocampal proteomics defines pathways associated with memory decline and resilience in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease mouse models.

Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia in the elderly, has no cure. Thus, the identification of key molecular mediators of cognitive decline in AD remains a top priority. As aging is the most significant risk factor for AD, the goal of this study was to identify altered proteins and pathways associated with the development of normal aging and AD memory deficits, and identify unique proteins and pathways that may contribute to AD-specific symptoms. We used contextual fear conditioning to diagnose 8-month-old 5XFAD and non-transgenic (Ntg) mice as having either intact or impaired memory, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to quantify hippocampal membrane proteins across groups. Subsequent analysis detected 113 proteins differentially expressed relative to memory status (intact vs impaired) in Ntg mice and 103 proteins in 5XFAD mice. Thirty-six proteins, including several involved in neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity (e.g., GRIA1, GRM3, and SYN1), were altered in both normal aging and AD. Pathway analysis highlighted HDAC4 as a regulator of observed protein changes in both genotypes and identified the REST epigenetic regulatory pathway and G intracellular signaling as AD-specific pathways involved in regulating the onset of memory deficits. Comparing the hippocampal membrane proteome of Ntg versus AD, regardless of cognitive status, identified 138 differentially expressed proteins, including confirmatory proteins APOE and CLU. Overall, we provide a novel list of putative targets and pathways with therapeutic potential, including a set of proteins associated with cognitive status in normal aging mice or gene mutations that cause AD.

MeSH Terms

  • Aging
  • Alzheimer Disease
  • Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor
  • Animals
  • Chromatography, Liquid
  • Conditioning, Psychological
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Fear
  • Hippocampus
  • Humans
  • Memory
  • Memory Disorders
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Presenilin-1
  • Proteome
  • Proteomics
  • Psychological Tests
  • Resilience, Psychological
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry


  • Aging
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Cognition
  • Ion channels
  • Proteomics