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DNA replication licensing factor MCM4 (EC (CDC21 homolog) (P1-CDC21) [CDC21]


Hepatoprotective effects of hydroxysafflor yellow A in D-galactose-treated aging mice.

Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is an effective chemical component isolated from Chinese herb Carthamus tinctorius L. In present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of HSYA on D-galactose- (D-gal-) induced aging in mice, and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Male C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneal injection of D-gal and HSYA for 8 weeks. The body weight gain, spleen and thymus coefficients were determined. Levels of super dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum and liver were measured using commercial kits. Pathological changes and the SA-β-Gal activity in liver tissues were detected by hematoxylin and eosin and SA-β-Gal staining. The expression levels of p16, CDK4, CDK6 and phosphorylation levels of Retinoblastoma (Rb) were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. mRNA levels of genes regulated by p16-Rb pathway were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. In vivo, HSYA improved the aging changes including body weight, organ index and antioxidant status such as activities of SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and MDA in D-gal treated aging mice. HSYA also dramatically attenuated pathologic changes of aging liver tissues induced by D-gal. Furthermore, HSYA significantly decreased the mRNA and protein level of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16, followed by increasing CDK4/6 protein expression and decreasing the phosphorylation of Retinoblastoma (pRb) which up-regulated the expression of downstream genes CCNE1, CCNA2, P107 and MCM4. Collectively, these data indicated that HSYA could ameliorate aging, especially hepatic replicative senescence resulting from D-gal, the mechanism could be associated with the suppression of p16-Rb pathway.


  • D-galactose
  • Hydroxysafflor yellow A
  • Oxidative stress
  • Replicative senescence
  • p16

Changes in MCM2-7 proteins at senescence.

Cellular aging is characterized by the loss of DNA replication capability and is mainly brought about by various changes in chromatin structure. Here, we examined changes in MCM2-7 proteins, which act as a replicative DNA helicase, during aging of human WI38 fibroblasts at the single-cell level. We used nuclear accumulation of p21 as a marker of senescent cells, and examined changes in MCM2-7 by western blot analysis. First, we found that senescent cells are enriched for cells with a DNA content higher than 4N. Second, the levels of MCM2, MCM3, MCM4 and MCM6 proteins decreased in senescent cells. Third, cytoplasmic localization of MCM2 and MCM7 was observed in senescent cells, from an analysis of MCM2-7 except for MCM5. Consistent with this finding, fragmented MCM2 was predominant in these cells. These age-dependent changes in MCM2-7, a protein complex that directly affects cellular DNA replication, may play a critical role in cellular senescence.

MeSH Terms

  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Cellular Senescence
  • DNA Replication
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Humans
  • Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2
  • Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 3
  • Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 4
  • Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 6
  • Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 7
  • Multiprotein Complexes
  • Single-Cell Analysis
  • p21-Activated Kinases


  • DNA content
  • MCM2–7 proteins
  • cellular aging
  • cellular localization
  • protein degradation