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Catalase (EC


Alginate Oligosaccharide Prevents against D-galactose-mediated Cataract in C57BL/6J Mice via Regulating Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant System.

Alginate oligosaccharides (AOS), obtained from depolymerizing alginate, has multiple pharmacological benefits. Cataract is a common disease caused by turbidity of the lens protein due to lens metabolism disorders. This study aimed to test the effects and the underlying mechanisms of AOS on D-galactose (D-gal)-mediated cataract. A total of 45 8-week-old C57BL/6 J male mice were randomly divided into 5 groups. After eight weeks' intervention, the score of cataract was calculated depending on the turbidity of the lens. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images [i]were observed. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level were measured by corresponding[/i] detection kits, respectively. SOD1, SOD2, catalase (CAT) and p53 protein expressions were examined by Western blot. Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA expressions were examined by Quantitative Real Time-PCR (RT-qPCR). The score of the turbidity of the lens showed that AOS significantly delayed the cataractogenesis. HE staining and TEM imaging showed that AOS decreased the damage and senescence of lenses in D-gal-induced C57BL/6 J mice. We further detected aging marker p53 expression in crystalline lenses, and our result showed that AOS significantly inhibited p53 protein expression in D-gal-induced mice. In addition, SOD activity and MDA level detection results showed that AOS significantly increased the activity of SOD, and decreased the level of MDA in crystalline lenses homogenates of D-gal-induced aging mice. Western blot results showed that AOS attenuated the damage of D-gal in the protein expressions of antioxidative enzymes SOD1, SOD2 and CAT. RT-qPCR results showed that AOS suppressed the down-regulation of Nrf2 and HO-1 mRNA expressions induced by D-gal. AOS prevents against D-gal-mediated cataract in C57BL/6 J mice via inhibiting oxidative stress and up-regulating antioxidant system. Consequently, our results suggest that AOS may be an effective therapeutic strategy against cataract.


  • Cataract
  • D-galactose
  • aging
  • alginate oligosaccharide
  • oxidative stress

hPMSCs protects against D-galactose-induced oxidative damage of CD4 T cells through activating Akt-mediated Nrf2 antioxidant signaling.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were considered a regenerative therapeutic approach in both acute and chronic diseases. However, whether MSCs regulate the antioxidant metabolism of CD4 T cells and weaken immunosenescence remains unclear. Here, we reported the protective effects of hPMSCs in aging-related CD4 T cell senescence and identified the underlying mechanisms using a D-gal-induced mouse aging model. In vivo study, 40 male C57BL/6 mice (8 weeks) were randomly divided into four groups: control group, D-gal group, hPMSC group, and PBS group. In in vitro experiment, human naive CD4 T (CD4CD45RA) cells were prepared using a naive CD4 T cell isolation kit II and pretreated with the Akt inhibitor LY294002 and Nrf2 inhibitor ML385. Then, isolated naive CD4 T cell were co-cultured with hPMSCs for 72 h in the absence or presence of anti-CD3/CD28 Dynabeads and IL-2 as a mitogenic stimulus. Intracellular ROS changes were detected by flow cytometry. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase were measured by colorimetric analysis. The senescent T cells were detected SA-β-gal stain. The expression of aging-related proteins was detected by Western blotting, RT-PCR, and confocal microscopy. We found that hPMSC treatment markedly decreased the ROS level, SA-β-gal-positive cells number, senescence-associated secretory phenotype (IL-6 and OPN) expression, and aging-related protein (P16 and P21) expression in senescent CD4 T cells. Furthermore, hPMSC treatment effectively upregulated Nrf2 nuclear translocation and the expression of downstream target genes (HO-1, CAT, GCLC, and NQO1) in senescent CD4 T cells. Moreover, in vitro studies revealed that hPMSCs attenuated CD4 T cell senescence by upregulating the Akt/GSK-3β/Fyn pathway to activate Nrf2 functions. Conversely, the antioxidant effects of hPMSCs were blocked by the Akt inhibitor LY294002 and Nrf2 inhibitor ML385 in senescent CD4 T cells. Our results indicate that hPMSCs attenuate D-gal-induced CD4 T cell senescence by activating Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defenses and that upregulation of Nrf2 by hPMSCs is regulated via the Akt/GSK-3β/Fyn pathway.


  • Aging
  • CD4 T cells
  • Nrf2
  • Oxidative stress
  • Senescence-associated secretoryphenotype
  • hPMSC

Training improves the handling of inhaler devices and reduces the severity of symptoms in geriatric patients suffering from chronic-obstructive pulmonary disease.

Elderly patients with impaired vision, cognitive decline or motor/sensory disturbances of their fingers suffering from chronic-obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) encounter difficulties in handling inhaler devices used as the cornerstones of treatment of pulmonary obstruction. Many elderly patients make severe mistakes which impede adequate drug delivery to the bronchioles. This multimodal training program was designed to reduce the number of handling mistakes of inhaler devices. From October 1, 2016 to September 30, 2017, a prospective intervention study was conducted in 38 in-patients > 65 years (median age 79 years) with previously diagnosed COPD. The effect of an 8-day intervention comprising daily counselling and video demonstration according to the recommendations of the German Airway League on the frequency of mistakes during handling of inhaler devices, the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), the forced vital capacity (FVC) and the perception of symptoms (COPD Assessment Test, CAT) were studied. Measurements on days 1 and 8 were compared by Wilcoxon signed rank test. The number of handling mistakes per patient decreased as a consequence of the intervention from 3.0 (0-7) to 0.5 (0-6) [median (minimum-maximum; p < 0.0001)]. The CAT Score decreased from 19.5 (14/24) to 14.5 (10.75/21) [median (25./75. percentile; p < 0.0001) indicating a substantial reduction of clinical symptoms. Conversely, FEV1 and FVC only slightly increased (difference statistically not significant). At study entry, the number of handling mistakes was inversely correlated with the Mini Mental Status Test (MMST) score (p = 0.01). The reduction of the number of handling mistakes during the intervention was not correlated with the MMST. In COPD, intensive training for 8 days improved the handling of inhalers and reduced clinical symptoms in geriatric patients. Patients with cognitive abnormalities also benefitted from this intervention. German Clinical Trials Registry DRKS00023196 , date of registration September 29, 2020 (retrospectively registered).


  • Chronic-obstructive pulmonary disease - Inhaler devices
  • Compliance
  • Geriatrics

7-chloro-4-(phenylselanyl) quinoline co-treatment prevent oxidative stress in diabetic-like phenotype induced by hyperglycidic diet in Drosophila melanogaster.

The goals of this work were to evaluate the effects produced by a hyperglycidic diet (HD) on Drosophila melanogaster and to verify the protective effect of 7-chloro-4-(phenylselanyl) quinoline (4-PSQ) on this model. Adult flies were divided into eight groups of 50 flies each: (1) RD, (regular diet) (2) RD   4-PSQ (25 μM), (3) HD 5%, (4) HD 10%, (5) HD 30% (6) HD 5%   4-PSQ (25 μM), (7) HD 10%   4-PSQ (25 μM) and (8) HD 30%   4-PSQ (25 μM). Flies were exposed to a diet containing sucrose and or 4-PSQ for ten days, according to each group. At the end of treatment survival rate, longevity, hatch rate, food intake, glucose and triglyceride levels, as well as, some markers of oxidative stress, such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, protein thiol (PSH) and non-protein levels (NPSH) and cell viability assays (Resazurin and MTT) were evaluated. It was observed that HD's consumption was associated with lower survival of the flies, lower longevity, and increased levels of glucose, triglycerides, TBARS and increased SOD activities and CAT activities. Treatment with 25 μM 4-PSQ increased the satiety of flies, increased survival, reduced glucose, triglyceride and TBARS levels, increased hatching, and normalized SOD and CAT activities. These results suggest that 25 μM 4-PSQ had a potential antioxidant effect and provided greater satiety by attenuating the effects of high HD consumption on this model.


  • 4-PSQ
  • 7-chloro-4-(phenylselanyl) quinolone
  • Antioxidant effect
  • Diabetic-like phenotype
  • Hyperglycidic diet
  • Longevity
  • Oxidative stress

Aging influences in the blood-brain barrier permeability and cerebral oxidative stress in sepsis.

Sepsis is a set of serious manifestations throughout the body produced by an infection, leading to changes that compromise cellular homeostasis and can result in dysfunction of the central nervous system. The elderly have a higher risk of developing sepsis than younger peoples. Under the influence of inflammatory mediators and oxidizing agents released in the periphery as a result of the infectious stimulus, changes occur in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, with neutrophil infiltration, the passage of toxic compounds, activation of microglia and production of reactive species that results in potentiation of neuroimmune response, with the progression of neuronal damage and neuroinflammation. The objective of this study is to compare BBB permeability and the development of oxidative stress in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of young and old rats submitted to polymicrobial sepsis induction. Male Wistar rats grouped into sham (60d), sham (210d), cecal ligation and perforation (CLP) (60d) and CLP (210d) with n = 16 per experimental group were evaluated using the CLP technique to induce sepsis. The brain regions were collected at 24 h after sepsis induction to determine BBB permeability, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity as marker of neutrophil activation, nitrite/nitrate (N/N) levels as marker of reactive nitrogen species, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances as marker of lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation as marker of protein oxidation, and activity of antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT). There was an increase in the BBB permeability in the CLP groups, and this was enhanced with aging in both brain region. MPO activity in the brain regions increased in the CLP groups, along with a hippocampal increase in the CLP 210d group compared to the 60d group. The concentration of N/N in the brain region was increased in the CLP groups. The damage to lipids and proteins in the two structures was enhanced in the CLP groups, while only lipid peroxidation was higher in the prefrontal cortex of the CLP 210d group compared to the 60d. CAT activity in the hippocampus was decreased in both CLP groups, and this was also influenced by age, whereas in the prefrontal cortex there was only a decrease in CAT in the CLP 60d group compared to the sham 60d. These findings indicate that aging potentiated BBB permeability in sepsis, which possibly triggered an increase in neutrophil infiltration and, consequently, an increase in oxidative stress.


  • Aging
  • Blood-brain barrier
  • Brain
  • Oxidative stress
  • Sepsis

Verification of Resveratrol Inhibits Intestinal Aging by Downregulating ATF4/Chop/Bcl-2/Bax Signaling Pathway: Based on Network Pharmacology and Animal Experiment.

Resveratrol is one of the most well-known drugs used in the treatment of aging. However, the potential mechanisms of resveratrol on intestinal aging have not yet been fully investigated. Herein, we aimed to further explore the pharmacological mechanisms of resveratrol as a therapy for intestinal aging. We performed network construction and enrichment analysis [i]via[/i] network pharmacology. Then a further animal experimental validation containing 20 female C57BL/6J (wild type, WT) and 16 female [i]ATF4 [/i] (knock down, KD) naturally aging mice and oral supplementary resveratrol (44 mg/kg/day) for 30 days were conducted. The expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), linear alkylethoxylate (AE), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured by ELISA, the observation of pathological changes and apoptosis in intestinal tissue were performed by HE, PAS, and TUNEL staining, the ATF4/Chop/Bcl-2/Bax signaling pathway-related proteins and mRNAs expression were measured by western blotting and real-time PCR. The network pharmacology showed 132 targets of resveratrol on aging. The enrichment analysis showed resveratrol antiaging involved mainly included protein heterodimerization activity, apoptosis, etc. Then ATF4/Chop/Bcl-2/Bax signaling pathway in biological process of apoptosis was selected to verify the potential mechanisms. Animal studies showed resveratrol upregulated the relative expression of SOD, GSH-Px, CAT, AE, whereas it downregulated the relative expression of MDA in intestine compared with the control group. There was also higher relative expression of SOD, GSH-Px, CAT, AE, and lower relative expression of MDA in KD mice than that in WT mice. Moreover, there was higher relative expression of SOD, GSH-Px, CAT, AE, and lower relative expression of MDA in KD mice than that in WT mice after resveratrol treatment. Decreased ATF4, Chop, Bax but increased Bcl-2 proteins and mRNAs expression were determined after resveratrol treatment compared with the control group; lower ATF4, Chop, Bax but higher Bcl-2 proteins and mRNAs expression were found in KD mice than that in WT mice. Additionally, lower relative proteins and mRNAs expression of ATF4, Chop, Bax and higher relative expression of Bcl-2 in KD mice than that in WT mice after resveratrol treatment. These findings demonstrated that resveratrol substantially inhibited intestinal aging [i]via[/i] downregulating ATF4/Chop/Bcl-2/Bax signaling pathway.


  • aging
  • animal experiment
  • apoptosis
  • mechanisms
  • network pharmacology
  • resveratrol

The phytochemical epigallocatechin gallate prolongs the lifespan by improving lipid metabolism, reducing inflammation and oxidative stress in high-fat diet-fed obese rats.

We have recently reported that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) could extend lifespan in healthy rats. This study aimed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of a high dose of EGCG in extending the lifespan of obese rats. Ninety adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the control (NC), high-fat (HF) and EGCG groups. Serum glucose and lipids, inflammation and oxidative stress were dynamically determined from adulthood to death, and the transcriptome and proteome of the liver were also examined. The median lifespans of the NC, HF and EGCG groups were 693, 599 and 683 days, respectively, and EGCG delayed death by 84 days in obese rats. EGCG improved serum glucose and lipids and reduced inflammation and oxidative stress associated with aging in obese rats induced by a high-fat diet. EGCG also significantly decreased the levels of total free fatty acids (FFAs), SFAs and the n-6/n-3 ratio but significantly increased the n-3 FFAs related to longevity. The joint study of the transcriptome and proteome in liver found that EGCG exerted its effects mainly by regulating the suppression of hydrogen peroxide and oxygen species metabolism, suppression of oxidative stress, activation of fatty acid transport and oxidation and cholesterol metabolism. EGCG significantly increased the protein expression of FOXO1, Sirt1, CAT, FABP1, GSTA2, ACSL1 and CPT2 but significantly decreased NF-κB, ACC1 and FAS protein levels in the livers of rats. All the results indicate that EGCG extends lifespan by improving FFA metabolism and reducing the levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress in obese rats.


  • EGCG
  • free fatty acid
  • high-fat dietary
  • lifespan
  • proteomics
  • transcriptome

2 -Deoxy - d-glucose at chronic low dose acts as a caloric restriction mimetic through a mitohormetic induction of ROS in the brain of accelerated senescence model of rat.

Aging induces significant molecular alteration in brain morphology. Glycolytic inhibitor 2-Deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) is considered to act as a caloric restriction mimetic (CRM) but it is correlated with elevated mortality risk in rats at persistent high dosage. In young and d-galactose induced accelerated senescent rat aging models, we tested a persistent low-dose dietary 2-DG administration and evaluated various aging biomarkers in brain tissue. A significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed in 2-DG treated (both young and accelerated senescent rat model). Increased Ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) value, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), and activity of mitochondrial complexes I and IV was observed. There was also significant improvements in the autophagy expression of genes (Beclin-1 and Atg-3) after 2- DG treatment. We propose that 2-DG induces a mitohormetic effect through elevation of ROS which reinforces defensive mechanism(s) through increased FRAP, SOD, CAT and autophagy gene expression. Our observations indicate that a consistently low dose 2-DG could be a valuable CRM.


  • 2-Deoxy- d-glucose
  • Aging
  • Brain
  • CRM
  • Mitohormosis
  • ROS

{{medline-entry |title=Ceftriaxone improves senile neurocognition damages induced by D-galactose in mice. |pubmed-url= |abstract=Ceftriaxone (Cef), a beta-lactam antibiotic, is accompanied by antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It has been shown that Cef has beneficial effects on Alzheimer's disease. In the current investigation, the effect of Cef in a mice model of aging was investigated. Forty male mice were equally aliquoted into four groups as follows: Control (as healthy normal animals), D-galactose (DG) group (treated with 500 mg/kg/day DG for 6 weeks), DG Cef group (treated with DG plus Cef 200 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks), and Cef group (treated with Cef 200 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks). A battery of behavioral tests was done to evaluate age-related neurocognitive changes. The activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the brain, were measured by biochemical methods. Also, to determine the brain damage, histopathological alterations in the hippocampus were measured using hematoxylin and eosin (H