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Interferon gamma precursor (IFN-gamma) (Immune interferon)


Glutathione Peroxidase 3 Delivered by hiPSC-MSCs Ameliorated Hepatic IR Injury via Inhibition of Hepatic Senescence.

Down-regulation of GPx3 accelerated hepatic senescence, which further caused overwhelming inflammation and severe liver graft injury. MSCs derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-MSCs) have been developed as more efficient delivery vehicle with the property of injury tropism. Here, we aimed to explore the suppressive role of GPx3 in hepatic IR injury using novel delivery system of hiPSC-MSCs. The mice IR injury model with partial hepatectomy was established. The engineered hiPSC-MSCs delivering GPx3 was constructed. All the mice were segregated into three groups. hiPSC-MSC-GPx3, hiPSC-MSC-pCDH (vector control) or PBS were injected via portal vein after reperfusion. Liver injury was evaluated by histological and serological test. Hepatic apoptosis was detected by Tunel staining and remnant liver regeneration was assessed by Ki67 staining. The role of hepatic senescence in liver graft injury was evaluated in rat orthotopic liver transplantation model. The suppressive effect of GPx3 on hepatic senescence was examined in mice IR injury model and confirmed in vitro. Hepatic senescence was detected by SA-β-Gal and P staining. GPx3 can be successfully delivered by hiPSC-MSCs into liver tissues. Histological examination showed that hiPSC-MSC-GPx3 treatment significantly ameliorated hepatic IR injury post-operation. Significantly lower LDH (891.43±98.45 mU/mL, P<0.05) and AST (305.77±36.22 IU/L, P<0.01) were observed in hiPSC-MSC-GPx3 group compared with control groups. Less apoptotic hepatocytes were observed and the remnant liver regeneration was more active in hiPSC-MSC-GPx3 group. In rat orthotopic liver transplantation model, more senescent hepatocytes were observed in small-for-size liver graft, in which GPx3 expression was significantly compromised. In mice IR injury model, hiPSC-MSC-GPx3 significantly suppressed hepatic senescence. In addition, rGPx3 inhibited cellular senescence of liver cells in a dose dependent manner. Four candidate genes (CD44, Nox4, IFNG, SERPERINB2) were identified to be responsible for suppressive effect of GPx3 on hepatic senescence. Engineered hiPSC-MSCs delivering GPx3 ameliorated hepatic IR injury via inhibition of hepatic senescence.

MeSH Terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis
  • Cell Line
  • Glutathione Peroxidase
  • Hepatectomy
  • Humans
  • Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
  • Liver
  • Male
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells
  • Mice
  • Rats
  • Reperfusion Injury
  • Signal Transduction


  • GPx3
  • IR injury
  • hepatic senescence
  • hiPSC-MSCs
  • liver transplantation.

Impact of aging on host immune response and survival in melanoma: an analysis of 3 patient cohorts.

Age has been reported as an independent prognostic factor for melanoma-specific survival (MSS). We tested the hypothesis that age impacts the host anti-tumor immune response, accounting for age-specific survival outcomes in three unique melanoma patient cohorts. We queried the U.S. population-based Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER), the prospective tertiary care hospital-based Interdisciplinary Melanoma Cooperative Group (IMCG) biorepository, and the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) biospecimen database to test the association of patient age at time of melanoma diagnosis with clinicopathologic features and survival outcomes. Age groups were defined as ≤45 (young), 46-65 (intermediate), and >65 (older). Each age group in the IMCG and TCGA cohorts was stratified by tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) measurements and tested for association with MSS. Differential expression of 594 immunoregulatory genes was assessed in a subset of primary melanomas in the IMCG and TCGA cohorts using an integrative pathway analysis. We analyzed 304, 476 (SEER), 1241 (IMCG), and 292 (TCGA) patients. Increasing age at melanoma diagnosis in both the SEER and IMCG cohorts demonstrated a positive correlation with tumor thickness, ulceration, stage, and mortality, however age in the TCGA cohort did not correlate with mortality. Older age was associated with shorter MSS in all three cohorts. When the young age group in both the IMCG and TCGA cohorts was stratified by TIL status, there were no differences in MSS. However, older IMCG patients with brisk TILs and intermediate aged TCGA patients with high lymphocyte scores (3-6) had improved MSS. Gene expression analysis revealed top pathways (T cell trafficking, communication, and differentiation) and top upstream regulators (CD3, CD28, IFNG, and STAT3) that significantly changed with age in 84 IMCG and 43 TCGA primary melanomas. Older age at time of melanoma diagnosis is associated with shorter MSS, however age's association with clinicopathologic features is dependent upon specific characteristics of the study population. TIL as a read-out of the host immune response may have greater prognostic impact in patients older than age 45. Recognition of age-related factors negatively impacting host immune responses may provide new insights into therapeutic strategies for the elderly.

MeSH Terms

  • Aged
  • Aging
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • Humans
  • Immunity
  • Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating
  • Male
  • Melanoma
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Prognosis
  • SEER Program
  • Survival Analysis


  • Age
  • Elderly
  • Host immune response
  • Melanoma
  • SEER
  • TCGA
  • Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes

Age-related profiling of DNA methylation in CD8 T cells reveals changes in immune response and transcriptional regulator genes.

Human ageing affects the immune system resulting in an overall decline in immunocompetence. Although all immune cells are affected during aging, the functional capacity of T cells is most influenced and is linked to decreased responsiveness to infections and impaired differentiation. We studied age-related changes in DNA methylation and gene expression in CD4 and CD8 T cells from younger and older individuals. We observed marked difference between T cell subsets, with increased number of methylation changes and higher methylome variation in CD8 T cells with age. The majority of age-related hypermethylated sites were located at CpG islands of silent genes and enriched for repressive histone marks. Specifically, in CD8 T cell subset we identified strong inverse correlation between methylation and expression levels in genes associated with T cell mediated immune response (LGALS1, IFNG, CCL5, GZMH, CCR7, CD27 and CD248) and differentiation (SATB1, TCF7, BCL11B and RUNX3). Our results thus suggest the link between age-related epigenetic changes and impaired T cell function.

MeSH Terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Aging
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes
  • CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cell Lineage
  • CpG Islands
  • DNA Methylation
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Histone Code
  • Humans
  • Immunity
  • Middle Aged
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • Young Adult