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Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 precursor (EC (FGFR-4) (CD334 antigen) [JTK2] [TKF]


FGFR4 Inhibitor BLU9931 Attenuates Pancreatic Cancer Cell Proliferation and Invasion While Inducing Senescence: Evidence for Senolytic Therapy Potential in Pancreatic Cancer.

Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4), one of four tyrosine kinase receptors for FGFs, is involved in diverse cellular processes. Activation of FGF19/FGFR4 signaling is closely associated with cancer development and progression. In this study, we examined the expression and roles of FGF19/FGFR4 signaling in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). In human PDAC cases, FGFR4 expression positively correlated with larger primary tumors and more advanced stages. Among eight PDAC cell lines, FGFR4 was expressed at the highest levels in PK-1 cells, in which single-nucleotide polymorphism G388R in [i]FGFR4[/i] was detected. For inhibition of autocrine/paracrine FGF19/FGFR4 signaling, we used BLU9931, a highly selective FGFR4 inhibitor. Inhibition of signal transduction through ERK, AKT, and STAT3 pathways by BLU9931 reduced proliferation in FGF19/FGFR4 signaling-activated PDAC cells. By contrast, BLU9931 did not alter stemness features, including stemness marker expression, anticancer drug resistance, and sphere-forming ability. However, BLU9931 inhibited cell invasion, in part, by downregulating membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase-1 in FGF19/FGFR4 signaling-activated PDAC cells. Furthermore, downregulation of SIRT1 and SIRT6 by BLU9931 contributed to senescence induction, priming these cells for quercetin-induced death, a process termed senolysis. Thus, we propose that BLU9931 is a promising therapeutic agent in FGFR4-positive PDAC, especially when combined with senolysis (195/200).


  • FGFR4
  • FGFR4 inhibitor
  • growth
  • invasion
  • pancreatic cancer
  • senescence
  • senolytic therapy

Satellite cell-specific ablation of Cdon impairs integrin activation, FGF signalling, and muscle regeneration.

Perturbation in cell adhesion and growth factor signalling in satellite cells results in decreased muscle regenerative capacity. Cdon (also called Cdo) is a component of cell adhesion complexes implicated in myogenic differentiation, but its role in muscle regeneration remains to be determined. We generated inducible satellite cell-specific Cdon ablation in mice by utilizing a conditional Cdon allele and Pax7 . To induce Cdon ablation, mice were intraperitoneally injected with tamoxifen (tmx). Using cardiotoxin-induced muscle injury, the effect of Cdon depletion on satellite cell function was examined by histochemistry, immunostaining, and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation assay. Isolated myofibers or myoblasts were utilized to determine stem cell function and senescence. To determine pathways related to Cdon deletion, injured muscles were subjected to RNA sequencing analysis. Satellite cell-specific Cdon ablation causes impaired muscle regeneration with fibrosis, likely attributable to decreased proliferation, and senescence, of satellite cells. Cultured Cdon-depleted myofibers exhibited 32 ± 9.6% of EdU-positive satellite cells compared with 58 ± 4.4% satellite cells in control myofibers (P < 0.05). About 32.5 ± 3.7% Cdon-ablated myoblasts were positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) while only 3.6 ± 0.5% of control satellite cells were positive (P < 0.001). Transcriptome analysis of muscles at post-injury Day 4 revealed alterations in genes related to mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling (P < 8.29 e ) and extracellular matrix (P < 2.65 e ). Consistent with this, Cdon-depleted tibialis anterior muscles had reduced phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) protein levels and expression of ERK targets, such as Fos (0.23-fold) and Egr1 (0.31-fold), relative to mock-treated control muscles (P < 0.001). Cdon-depleted myoblasts exhibited impaired ERK activation in response to basic fibroblast growth factor. Cdon ablation resulted in decreased and/or mislocalized integrin β1 activation in satellite cells (weak or mislocalized integrin1 in tmx = 38.7 ± 1.9%, mock = 21.5 ± 6%, P < 0.05), previously linked with reduced fibroblast growth factor (FGF) responsiveness in aged satellite cells. In mechanistic studies, Cdon interacted with and regulated cell surface localization of FGFR1 and FGFR4, likely contributing to FGF responsiveness of satellite cells. Satellite cells from a progeria model, Zmpste24 myofibers, showed decreased Cdon levels (Cdon-positive cells in Zmpste24 = 63.3 ± 11%, wild type = 90 ± 7.7%, P < 0.05) and integrin β1 activation (weak or mislocalized integrin β1 in Zmpste24 = 64 ± 6.9%, wild type = 17.4 ± 5.9%, P < 0.01). Cdon deficiency in satellite cells causes impaired proliferation of satellite cells and muscle regeneration via aberrant integrin and FGFR signalling.


  • Cdon
  • Cellular senescence
  • FGFR
  • Growth factor signalling
  • Muscle regeneration
  • Satellite cell

The Klotho proteins in health and disease.

The Klotho proteins, αKlotho and βKlotho, are essential components of endocrine fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor complexes, as they are required for the high-affinity binding of FGF19, FGF21 and FGF23 to their cognate FGF receptors (FGFRs). Collectively, these proteins form a unique endocrine system that governs multiple metabolic processes in mammals. FGF19 is a satiety hormone that is secreted from the intestine on ingestion of food and binds the βKlotho-FGFR4 complex in hepatocytes to promote metabolic responses to feeding. By contrast, under fasting conditions, the liver secretes the starvation hormone FGF21, which induces metabolic responses to fasting and stress responses through the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system following binding to the βKlotho-FGFR1c complex in adipocytes and the suprachiasmatic nucleus, respectively. Finally, FGF23 is secreted by osteocytes in response to phosphate intake and binds to αKlotho-FGFR complexes, which are expressed most abundantly in renal tubules, to regulate mineral metabolism. Growing evidence suggests that the FGF-Klotho endocrine system also has a crucial role in the pathophysiology of ageing-related disorders, including diabetes, cancer, arteriosclerosis and chronic kidney disease. Therefore, targeting the FGF-Klotho endocrine axes might have therapeutic benefit in multiple systems; investigation of the crystal structures of FGF-Klotho-FGFR complexes is paving the way for the development of drugs that can regulate these axes.

MeSH Terms

  • Aging
  • Animals
  • Biomarkers
  • Birds
  • Cardiovascular Diseases
  • Endocrine System Diseases
  • Fibroblast Growth Factors
  • Glucuronidase
  • Humans
  • Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System
  • Kidney Diseases
  • Mammals
  • Phosphates
  • Pituitary-Adrenal System