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Membrane cofactor protein precursor (TLX) (Trophoblast leukocyte common antigen) (CD46 antigen) [MCP] [MIC10]


Soluble forms of CD46 are detected in Bos taurus plasma and neutralize BVDV, the bovine pestivirus.

The pestivirus bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is known to bind to the CD46 molecule, which subsequently promotes entry of the virus. Mapping of the BVD-virion-binding site has shown that two peptides, 66EQIV69 and 82GQVLAL87, located on antiparallel beta sheets in the most distal complement control protein module (CCP1), provide the attachment platform. In the present study, we reveal new CD46-encoding transcripts that are predicted to encode CCP1-containing soluble forms. Further, we show that the serum of most adult cattle contains soluble CD46 (sCD46) and that a recombinant soluble isoform neutralizes BVDV infectivity in an in vitro assay. We have then established an ELISA for determination of plasma sCD46 in a large cohort of animals. Overall, serum sCD46 amounts to 8±18ng/mL (mean±SD, n=440), with a IC [95-105] ranging from 6,4 to 9,8ng/mL and extreme values ​​between 0 and 178ng/mL. We found that sCD46 is not detectable in fetal and neonatal sera and that its plasma concentration increases progressively up to adulthood. We also detected high- and low-sCD46 performers and show that this phenotype does not depend of environment. As modern rearing techniques make it possible to disseminate genetically-determined phenotypes very quickly in a population, a large-scale study examining whether high-sCD46 animals provide epidemiological protection against BVDV infection and transmission should be undertaken.

MeSH Terms

  • Aging
  • Alternative Splicing
  • Animals
  • Cattle
  • Diarrhea Virus 1, Bovine Viral
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Membrane Cofactor Protein
  • Phenotype
  • Receptors, Virus
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Solubility
  • Virus Attachment


  • BVD/MD
  • Bos taurus
  • CD46
  • Soluble receptor

Brain innate immunity in the regulation of neuroinflammation: therapeutic strategies by modulating CD200-CD200R interaction involve the cannabinoid system.

The central nervous system (CNS) innate immune response includes an arsenal of molecules and receptors expressed by professional phagocytes, glial cells and neurons that is involved in host defence and clearance of toxic and dangerous cell debris. However, any uncontrolled innate immune responses within the CNS are widely recognized as playing a major role in the development of autoimmune disorders and neurodegeneration, with multiple sclerosis (MS) Alzheimer's disease (AD) being primary examples. Hence, it is important to identify the key regulatory mechanisms involved in the control of CNS innate immunity and which could be harnessed to explore novel therapeutic avenues. Neuroimmune regulatory proteins (NIReg) such as CD95L, CD200, CD47, sialic acid, complement regulatory proteins (CD55, CD46, fH, C3a), HMGB1, may control the adverse immune responses in health and diseases. In the absence of these regulators, when neurons die by apoptosis, become infected or damaged, microglia and infiltrating immune cells are free to cause injury as well as an adverse inflammatory response in acute and chronic settings. We will herein provide new emphasis on the role of the pair CD200-CD200R in MS and its experimental models: experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and Theiler's virus induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD). The interest of the cannabinoid system as inhibitor of inflammation prompt us to introduce our findings about the role of endocannabinoids (eCBs) in promoting CD200-CD200 receptor (CD200R) interaction and the benefits caused in TMEV-IDD. Finally, we also review the current data on CD200-CD200R interaction in AD, as well as, in the aging brain.

MeSH Terms

  • Aging
  • Alzheimer Disease
  • Antigens, CD
  • Antigens, Surface
  • Brain
  • Encephalitis
  • Endocannabinoids
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Orexin Receptors
  • Receptors, Cell Surface