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Caspase-1 precursor (EC (CASP-1) (Interleukin-1 beta convertase) (IL-1BC) (Interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme) (ICE) (IL-1 beta-converting enzyme) (p45) [Contains: Caspase-1 subunit p20; Caspase-1 subunit p10] [IL1BC] [IL1BCE]


White Matter Abnormalities Linked to Interferon, Stress Response, and Energy Metabolism Gene Expression Changes in Older HIV-Positive Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy.

Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) remains a significant cause of morbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals despite highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). White matter abnormalities have emerged as a key component of age-related neurodegeneration, and accumulating evidence suggests they play a role in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Viral persistence in the brain induces chronic inflammation associated with lymphocytic infiltration, microglial proliferation, myelin loss, and cerebrovascular lesions. In this study, gene expression profiling was performed on frontal white matter from 34 older HIV individuals on HAART (18 with NCI) and 24 HIV-negative controls. We used the NanoString nCounter platform to evaluate 933 probes targeting inflammation, interferon and stress responses, energy metabolism, and central nervous system-related genes. Viral loads were measured using single-copy assays. Compared to HIV- controls, HIV individuals exhibited increased expression of genes related to interferon, MHC-1, and stress responses, myeloid cells, and T cells and decreased expression of genes associated with oligodendrocytes and energy metabolism in white matter. These findings correlated with increased white matter inflammation and myelin pallor, suggesting interferon (IRFs, IFITM1, ISG15, MX1, OAS3) and stress response (ATF4, XBP1, CHOP, CASP1, WARS) gene expression changes are associated with decreased energy metabolism (SREBF1, SREBF2, PARK2, TXNIP) and oligodendrocyte myelin production (MAG, MOG), leading to white matter dysfunction. Machine learning identified a 15-gene signature predictive of HIV status that was validated in an independent cohort. No specific gene expression patterns were associated with NCI. These findings suggest therapies that decrease chronic inflammation while protecting mitochondrial function may help to preserve white matter integrity in older HIV individuals.

MeSH Terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
  • Antiviral Agents
  • Brain
  • Energy Metabolism
  • Female
  • Gene Expression
  • HIV Infections
  • Humans
  • Interferons
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myelin Sheath
  • White Matter


  • Aging
  • HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders
  • Inflammation
  • Interferon response
  • Oxidative stress
  • Stress response
  • White matter

Gene expression of inflammasome components in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of vascular patients increases with age.

Chronic low-grade inflammation is considered a driver of many age-related disorders, including vascular diseases (inflammaging). Inhibition of autophagic capacity with ageing was postulated to generate a pro-inflammatory condition via activation of inflammasomes, a group of Interleukin-1 activating intracellular multi-protein complexes. We thus investigated gene expression of inflammasome components in PBMC of 77 vascular patients (age 22-82) in association with age. Linear regression of real-time qRT-PCR data revealed a significant positive association of gene expression of each of the inflammasome components with age (Pearson correlation coefficients: AIM2: r = 0.245; P = 0.032; NLRP3: r = 0.367; P = 0.001; ASC (PYCARD): r = 0.252; P = 0.027; CASP1: r = 0.296; P = 0.009; CASP5: r = 0.453; P = 0.00003; IL1B: r = 0.247; P = 0.030). No difference in gene expression of AIM2, NLRP3, ASC CASP1, and CASP5 was detected between PBMC of patients with advanced atherosclerosis and other vascular patients, whereas IL1B expression was increased in PBMC of the latter group (P = 0.0005). The findings reinforce the systemic pro-inflammatory phenotype reported in elderly by demonstrating an increased phase-1 activation of inflammasomes in PBMC of vascular patients.


  • AIM2
  • Aging
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Inflammation
  • NLRP3
  • Vascular disease