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Adenylate kinase isoenzyme 1 (EC (EC (AK 1) (ATP-AMP transphosphorylase 1) (ATP:AMP phosphotransferase) (Adenylate monophosphate kinase) (Myokinase)


Alcohol drinking exacerbates neural and behavioral pathology in the 3xTg-AD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that represents the most common cause of dementia in the United States. Although the link between alcohol use and AD has been studied, preclinical research has potential to elucidate neurobiological mechanisms that underlie this interaction. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that nondependent alcohol drinking exacerbates the onset and magnitude of AD-like neural and behavioral pathology. We first evaluated the impact of voluntary 24-h, two-bottle choice home-cage alcohol drinking on the prefrontal cortex and amygdala neuroproteome in C57BL/6J mice and found a striking association between alcohol drinking and AD-like pathology. Bioinformatics identified the AD-associated proteins MAPT (Tau), amyloid beta precursor protein (APP), and presenilin-1 (PSEN-1) as the main modulators of alcohol-sensitive protein networks that included AD-related proteins that regulate energy metabolism (ATP5D, HK1, AK1, PGAM1, CKB), cytoskeletal development (BASP1, CAP1, DPYSL2 [CRMP2], ALDOA, TUBA1A, CFL2, ACTG1), cellular/oxidative stress (HSPA5, HSPA8, ENO1, ENO2), and DNA regulation (PURA, YWHAZ). To address the impact of alcohol drinking on AD, studies were conducted using 3xTg-AD mice that express human MAPT, APP, and PSEN-1 transgenes and develop AD-like brain and behavioral pathology. 3xTg-AD and wild-type mice consumed alcohol or saccharin for 4 months. Behavioral tests were administered during a 1-month alcohol-free period. Alcohol intake induced AD-like behavioral pathologies in 3xTg-AD mice including impaired spatial memory in the Morris Water Maze, diminished sensorimotor gating as measured by prepulse inhibition, and exacerbated conditioned fear. Multiplex immunoassay conducted on brain lysates showed that alcohol drinking upregulated primary markers of AD pathology in 3xTg-AD mice: Aβ 42/40 ratio in the lateral entorhinal and prefrontal cortex and total Tau expression in the lateral entorhinal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, and amygdala at 1-month post alcohol exposure. Immunocytochemistry showed that alcohol use upregulated expression of pTau (Ser199/Ser202) in the hippocampus, which is consistent with late-stage AD. According to the NIA-AA Research Framework, these results suggest that alcohol use is associated with Alzheimer's pathology. Results also showed that alcohol use was associated with a general reduction in Akt/mTOR signaling via several phosphoproteins (IR, IRS1, IGF1R, PTEN, ERK, mTOR, p70S6K, RPS6) in multiple brain regions including hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. Dysregulation of Akt/mTOR phosphoproteins suggests alcohol may target this pathway in AD progression. These results suggest that nondependent alcohol drinking increases the onset and magnitude of AD-like neural and behavioral pathology in 3xTg-AD mice.

MeSH Terms

  • Alcohol Drinking
  • Alzheimer Disease
  • Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor
  • Animals
  • Behavior, Animal
  • Brain
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • tau Proteins


  • Aging
  • Amyloid beta
  • Ethanol
  • GSK
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Morris Water Maze
  • Prepulse inhibition
  • Self-administration
  • Tau pathology
  • Transgenic mouse model

Functional analysis of the glutathione S-transferase 3 from Onchocerca volvulus (Ov-GST-3): a parasite GST confers increased resistance to oxidative stress in Caenorhabditis elegans.

This study examined the genomic organisation of the coding region of the glutathione S-transferase 3 (Ov-GST-3) from the human parasitic nematode Onchocerca volvulus; alternative splicing leads to three different transcripts (Ov-GST-3/1; Ov-GST-3/2 and Ov-GST-3/3). Since the expression of Ov-GST-3 is inducible by oxidative stress, it is assumed that it is involved in the defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting from cellular metabolism. Furthermore, we suggest that Ov-GST-3 plays an important role in the protection of the parasite against ROS derived from the host's immune system. To experimentally investigate these speculations, we generated Caenorhabditis elegans lines transgenic for Ov-GST-3 (AK1) and examined their resistance to artificially generated ROS. The AK1 worms (extrachromosomal and integrated lines) were found to be much more resistant to internal (juglone) and external (hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase) oxidative stress than wild-type C.elegans worms. RNA interference experiments targeted to the Ov-GST-3 transcripts resulted in decreased resistance, confirming that this effect is due to the transgenic expression of Ov-GST-3. These results clearly demonstrate that the Ov-GST-3 gene confers an increased resistance to oxidative stress. This study also shows the applicability of C.elegans as a model organism for the functional characterization of genes from (parasitic) nematode species which are not accessible to genetic manipulations.

MeSH Terms

  • Alternative Splicing
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Animals, Genetically Modified
  • Caenorhabditis elegans
  • Glutathione Transferase
  • Longevity
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Onchocerca volvulus
  • Oxidative Stress
  • RNA Interference
  • RNA, Double-Stranded
  • RNA, Helminth
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Survival Rate
  • Transgenes