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Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (EC (ACC1) (Acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase alpha) (ACC-alpha) [ACAC] [ACC1] [ACCA]


Expression of lipogenic markers is decreased in subcutaneous adipose tissue and adipocytes of older women and is negatively linked to GDF15 expression.

In aging, the capacity of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) to store lipids decreases and this results in metabolically unfavorable fat redistribution. Triggers of this age-related SAT dysfunction may include cellular senescence or endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Therefore, we compared lipogenic capacity of SAT between young and older women and investigated its relation to senescence and ER stress markers. Samples of SAT and corresponding SAT-derived primary preadipocytes were obtained from two groups of women differing in age (36 vs. 72 years, n = 15 each) but matched for fat mass. mRNA levels of selected genes (lipogenesis: ACACA, FASN, SCD1, DGAT2, ELOVL6; senescence: p16, p21, NOX4, GDF15; ER stress-ATF4, XBP1s, PERK, HSPA5, GADD34, HYOU1, CHOP, EDEM1, DNAJC3) were assessed by qPCR, protein levels of GDF15 by ELISA, and mitochondrial function by the Seahorse Analyzer. Compared to the young, SAT and in vitro differentiated adipocytes from older women exhibited reduced mRNA expression of lipogenic enzymes. Out of analyzed senescence and ER stress markers, the only gene, whose expression correlated negatively with the expression of lipogenic enzymes in both SAT and adipocytes, was GDF15, a marker of not only senescence but also mitochondrial dysfunction. In line with this, inhibition of mitochondrial ATP synthase in adipocytes strongly upregulated GDF15 while reduced expression of lipogenic enzymes. Moreover, adipocytes from older women had a tendency for diminished mitochondrial capacity. Thus, a reduced lipogenic capacity of adipocytes in aged SAT appears to be linked to mitochondrial dysfunction rather than to ER stress or accumulation of senescent cells.

MeSH Terms

  • Adipocytes
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aging
  • Biomarkers
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cellular Senescence
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress
  • Female
  • Growth Differentiation Factor 15
  • Humans
  • Lipogenesis
  • Mitochondria
  • Subcutaneous Fat


  • Aging
  • Lipogenesis
  • Mitochondrial dysfunction
  • Senescence
  • Stress of endoplasmic reticulum
  • Subcutaneous adipose tissue

GH prevents adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal stem cells derived from human trabecular bone via canonical Wnt signaling.

The imbalance between osteogenesis and adipogenesis, which naturally accompanies bone marrow senescence, may contribute to the development of bone-associated diseases, like osteoporosis. In the present study, using primary human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) isolated from trabecular bone, we assessed the possible effect of GH on hMSC differentiation potential into adipocytes. GH (5 ng/ml) significantly inhibited the lipid accumulation in hMSCs cultured for 14 days in lipogenic medium. GH decreased the expression of the adipogenic genes, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) and adiponectin (ADN) as well as the expression of two lipogenesis-related enzymes, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and acethylCoA carboxylase (ACACA). In parallel, GH induced an increase in the gene expression and protein levels of osterix (OSX) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). These effects were ascribed to enhanced Wnt signaling as GH significantly reduced Wnt inhibitors, Dickkopf 1 (DKK1) and the secreted frizzled protein 2 (SFRP2), and increased the expression of an activator of Wnt, Wnt3. Accordingly, the expression of β-catenin and its nuclear levels were raised. Wnt involvement in GH anti-adipogenic effect was further confirmed by the silencing of β-catenin. In silenced hMSC, both the inhibitory effect of GH on the expression of the adipogenic genes, ADN and C/EBPα and the lipogenesis enzymes LPL and ACACA, were prevented together with the stimulatory effect of GH on the osteogenic genes OSX and OPG. The present study supports the hypothesis that when GH secretion declines as in aging, the fat in the bone-marrow cavities increases and the osteogenic capacity of the MSC pool is reduced due to a decrease in Wnt signaling.

MeSH Terms

  • Adipogenesis
  • Cancellous Bone
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Gene Silencing
  • Growth Hormone
  • Humans
  • Lipid Droplets
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells
  • Osteogenesis
  • Wnt Signaling Pathway
  • beta Catenin


  • Aging
  • Cell signaling
  • Growth hormone
  • Human mesenchymal stromal cells
  • Silencing
  • β-catenin