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Low-density lipoprotein receptor precursor (LDL receptor)


Inactivation of the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase IDOL Attenuates Diet-Induced Obesity and Metabolic Dysfunction in Mice.

Objective- The E3 ubiquitin ligase IDOL (inducible degrader of the LDLR [LDL (low-density lipoprotein) receptor]) is a post-transcriptional regulator of LDLR abundance. Model systems and human genetics support a role for IDOL in regulating circulating LDL levels. Whether IDOL plays a broader metabolic role and affects development of metabolic syndrome-associated comorbidities is unknown. Approach and Results- We studied WT (wild type) and Idol (Idol-KO) mice in 2 models: physiological aging and diet-induced obesity. In both models, deletion of Idol protected mice from metabolic dysfunction. On a Western-type diet, Idol loss resulted in decreased circulating levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and insulin. This was accompanied by protection from weight gain in short- and long-term dietary challenges, which could be attributed to reduced hepatosteatosis and fat mass in Idol-KO mice. Although feeding and intestinal fat uptake were unchanged in Idol-KO mice, their brown adipose tissue was protected from lipid accumulation and had elevated expression of UCP1 (uncoupling protein 1) and TH (tyrosine hydroxylase). Indirect calorimetry indicated a marked increase in locomotion and suggested a trend toward increased cumulative energy expenditure and fat oxidation. An increase in in vivo clearance of reconstituted lipoprotein particles in Idol-KO mice may sustain this energetic demand. In the BXD mouse genetic reference population, hepatic Idol expression correlates with multiple metabolic parameters, thus providing support for findings in the Idol-KO mice. Conclusions- Our study uncovers an unrecognized role for Idol in regulation of whole body metabolism in physiological aging and on a Western-type diet. These findings support Idol inhibition as a therapeutic strategy to target multiple metabolic syndrome-associated comorbidities.

MeSH Terms

  • Adipogenesis
  • Adipose Tissue, Brown
  • Adiposity
  • Age Factors
  • Aging
  • Animals
  • Biomarkers
  • Blood Glucose
  • Cholesterol
  • Diet, High-Fat
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Energy Metabolism
  • Female
  • Insulin
  • Liver
  • Locomotion
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Inbred DBA
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Obesity
  • Triglycerides
  • Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
  • Uncoupling Protein 1


  • adipose tissue, brown
  • cholesterol
  • lipid metabolism
  • metabolic syndrome
  • obesity
  • ubiquitin-protein ligases

Impact of age and sex on the development of atherosclerosis and expression of the related genes in apoE deficient mice.

Development of atherosclerosis is a chronic pathological process. ApoE deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice spontaneously develop atherosclerotic lesions. However, the impact of age and sex on lesions and expression of the related genes have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we collected blood and tissue samples from normal chow fed male and female apoE(-/-) mice at different ages, and determined serum lipids, PCSK9 levels, en face aortic lesions and expression of some pro- or anti-atherogenic genes. We determined that lesion development was clearly associated with age, and more lesions in males than females (12.6 ± 1.7% vs. 8.9 ± 1.1% at 8 months old, P < 0.05). Associated with age, serum total, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol and PCSK9 levels increased with more PCSK9 in females than males (313 ± 31 ng/mL vs. 239 ± 28 ng/mL at 8 months old, P < 0.05); expression of liver LDLR and ABCA1 decreased while of SR-BI increased; expression of macrophage ABCA1 and SR-BI decreased but of CD36 increased. Estrogen and tamoxifen induced ABCA1 and SR-BI expression, respectively, in macrophages isolated from female mice at the different age. Taken together, our study suggests that aging facilitates lesion development in apoE(-/-) mice with greater effect on male mice. The lesion development is also related to expression of pro- or anti-atherogenic genes in tissues, particularly in macrophages.

MeSH Terms

  • ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1
  • Aging
  • Animals
  • Apolipoproteins E
  • Atherosclerosis
  • CD36 Antigens
  • Female
  • Lipids
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Sex Characteristics


  • ABCA1
  • Age
  • Atherosclerosis
  • CD36
  • Sex