Lysine-specific demethylase 4C (EC 22.214.171.124) (Gene amplified in squamous cell carcinoma 1 protein) (GASC-1 protein) (JmjC domain-containing histone demethylation protein 3C) (Jumonji domain-containing protein 2C) ([histone H3]-trimethyl-L-lysine(9) demethylase 4C) [GASC1] [JHDM3C] [JMJD2C] [KIAA0780]
Epigenomic changes and stem cell deterioration are two hallmarks of aging. Accumulating evidence suggest that senescence of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) perpetuates aging or age-related diseases. Here we report that two H3K9 demethylases, KDM3A and KDM4C, regulate heterochromatin reorganization via transcriptionally activating condensin components NCAPD2 and NCAPG2 during MSC senescence. Suppression of KDM3A or KDM4C by either genetic or biochemical approach leads to robust DNA damage response and aggravates cellular senescence, whereas overexpression of KDM3A/KDM4C or NCAPD2 promotes heterochromatin reorganization and blunts DNA damage response. Moreover, MSCs derived from Kdm3a-/- mice exhibit defective chromosome organization and exacerbated DNA damage response, which are associated with accelerated bone aging. Consistently, analysis of human bone marrow MSCs and transcriptome database reveals inverse correlation of KDM3A/KDM4C and/or NCAPD2/NCAPG2 with aging. Taken together, the present finding unveils that H3K9 demethylases function as a surveillance mechanism to restrain DNA damage accumulation in stem cells during aging.
- Cell Biology
- DNA damage
- Molecular Mechanism of Gene Regulation
- Stem Cells Research
- bone aging
- epigenetic regulation
- histone demethylase
- mesenchymal stromal cells
Hypoxia is an environmental stress at high altitude and underground conditions but it is also present in many chronic age-related diseases, where blood flow into tissues is impaired. The oxygen-sensing system stimulates gene expression protecting tissues against hypoxic insults. Hypoxia stabilizes the expression of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1α (HIF-1α), which controls the expression of hundreds of survival genes related to e.g. enhanced energy metabolism and autophagy. Moreover, many stress-related signaling mechanisms, such as oxidative stress and energy metabolic disturbances, as well as the signaling cascades via ceramide, mTOR, NF-κB, and TGF-β pathways, can also induce the expression of HIF-1α protein to facilitate cell survival in normoxia. Hypoxia is linked to prominent epigenetic changes in chromatin landscape. Screening studies have indicated that the stabilization of HIF-1α increases the expression of distinct histone lysine demethylases (KDM). HIF-1α stimulates the expression of KDM3A, KDM4B, KDM4C, and KDM6B, which enhance gene transcription by demethylating H3K9 and H3K27 sites (repressive epigenetic marks). In addition, HIF-1α induces the expression of KDM2B and KDM5B, which repress transcription by demethylating H3K4me2,3 sites (activating marks). Hypoxia-inducible KDMs support locally the gene transcription induced by HIF-1α, although they can also control genome-wide chromatin landscape, especially KDMs which demethylate H3K9 and H3K27 sites. These epigenetic marks have important role in the control of heterochromatin segments and 3D folding of chromosomes, as well as the genetic loci regulating cell type commitment, proliferation, and cellular senescence, e.g. the INK4 box. A chronic stimulation of HIF-1α can provoke tissue fibrosis and cellular senescence, which both are increasingly present with aging and age-related diseases. We will review the regulation of HIF-1α-dependent induction of KDMs and clarify their role in pathological processes emphasizing that long-term stress-related insults can impair the maintenance of chromatin landscape and provoke cellular senescence and tissue fibrosis associated with aging and age-related diseases.