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Hyaluronan synthase 1 (EC (Hyaluronate synthase 1) (Hyaluronic acid synthase 1) (HA synthase 1) (HuHAS1) [HAS]


A large-scale CRISPR screen and identification of essential genes in cellular senescence bypass.

Cellular senescence is an important mechanism of autonomous tumor suppression, while its consequence such as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) may drive tumorigenesis and age-related diseases. Therefore, controlling the cell fate optimally when encountering senescence stress is helpful for anti-cancer or anti-aging treatments. To identify genes essential for senescence establishment or maintenance, we carried out a CRISPR-based screen with a deliberately designed single-guide RNA (sgRNA) library. The library comprised of about 12,000 kinds of sgRNAs targeting 1378 senescence-associated genes selected by integrating the information of literature mining, protein-protein interaction network, and differential gene expression. We successfully detected a dozen gene deficiencies potentially causing senescence bypass, and their phenotypes were further validated with a high true positive rate. RNA-seq analysis showed distinct transcriptome patterns of these bypass cells. Interestingly, in the bypass cells, the expression of SASP genes was maintained or elevated with CHEK2, HAS1, or MDK deficiency; but neutralized with MTOR, CRISPLD2, or MORF4L1 deficiency. Pathways of some age-related neurodegenerative disorders were also downregulated with MTOR, CRISPLD2, or MORF4L1 deficiency. The results demonstrated that disturbing these genes could lead to distinct cell fates as a consequence of senescence bypass, suggesting that they may play essential roles in cellular senescence.

MeSH Terms

  • CRISPR-Associated Protein 9
  • CRISPR-Cas Systems
  • Cell Line
  • Cellular Senescence
  • Fibroblasts
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Humans
  • Lentivirus


  • SASP
  • aging
  • bypass
  • cellular senescence

Age-related changes in cyclic phosphatidic acid-induced hyaluronic acid synthesis in human fibroblasts.

Hyaluronic acid is a major component of the extracellular matrix, which is important for skin hydration. As aging brings skin dehydration, we aimed to clarify the mRNA expression of hyaluronic acid-related proteins in human skin fibroblasts from donors of various ages (range 0.7-69 years). Previously, we reported that cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA), a unique phospholipid mediator, stimulated the expression of HAS2 and increased hyaluronic acid synthesis in human skin fibroblasts (donor age: 3 days). In this study, we measured the mRNA expression of hyaluronic acid-related proteins: hyaluronan synthase (HAS) 1-3, hyaluronidase-1, -2, and hyaluronic acid-binding protein (versican). In addition, we tested whether cPA could increase hyaluronic acid synthesis in skin fibroblasts derived from donors of various ages. The expression of HAS1, 3, hyaluronidase-1, and -2 did not change with aging. However, the mRNA expression of versican decreased with aging. Although it is thought that the amount of hyaluronic acid in the dermis decreases with aging, the mRNA expression of HAS2 was increased. But the amount of hyaluronic acid secreted by fibroblasts did not increase with aging. This suggests that the activity and/or protein expression of HAS2 decrease with aging. Furthermore, we observed that cPA caused the increase of hyaluronic acid synthesis at any age, and this effect was increased with aging. These results suggest that aging made the fibroblasts more sensitive to cPA treatment. Therefore, cPA represents a suitable candidate for the health maintenance and improvement of the skin by increasing the level of hyaluronic acid in the dermis.

MeSH Terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aging
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Child
  • Dermis
  • Female
  • Fibroblasts
  • Gene Expression
  • Heterocyclic Compounds, 1-Ring
  • Humans
  • Hyaluronan Synthases
  • Hyaluronic Acid
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Phosphatidic Acids
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Stimulation, Chemical
  • Young Adult


  • Aging
  • Cyclic phosphatidic acid
  • Human skin fibroblasts
  • Hyaluronan synthase
  • Hyaluronic acid
  • Versican