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Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-3 (Transducin beta chain 3)


Ablation of EYS in zebrafish causes mislocalisation of outer segment proteins, F-actin disruption and cone-rod dystrophy.

Mutations in EYS are associated with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) and autosomal recessive cone-rod dystrophy (arCRD) however, the function of EYS and the molecular mechanisms of how these mutations cause retinal degeneration are still unclear. Because EYS is absent in mouse and rat, and the structure of the retina differs substantially between humans and Drosophila, we utilised zebrafish as a model organism to study the function of EYS in the retina. We constructed an EYS-knockout zebrafish-line by TALEN technology which showed visual impairment at an early age, while the histological and immunofluorescence assays indicated the presence of progressive retinal degeneration with a cone predominately affected pattern. These phenotypes recapitulate the clinical manifestations of arCRD patients. Furthermore, the EYS zebrafish also showed mislocalisation of certain outer segment proteins (rhodopsin, opn1lw, opn1sw1, GNB3 and PRPH2), and disruption of actin filaments in photoreceptors. Protein mislocalisation may, therefore, disrupt the function of cones and rods in these zebrafish and cause photoreceptor death. Collectively, these results point to a novel role for EYS in maintaining the morphological structure of F-actin and in protein transport, loss of this function might be the trigger for the resultant cellular events that ultimately lead to photoreceptor death.

MeSH Terms

  • Actins
  • Aging
  • Animals
  • Apoptosis
  • Base Sequence
  • Cone-Rod Dystrophies
  • Electroretinography
  • Eye Proteins
  • Gene Deletion
  • Gene Knockout Techniques
  • Light Signal Transduction
  • Rod Cell Outer Segment
  • Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases
  • Vision, Ocular
  • Zebrafish
  • Zebrafish Proteins

GNB3, eNOS, and mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms correlate to natural longevity in a Xinjiang Uygur population.

In centenarian populations, application of the positive biology approach (examination of positive phenotypes in aging) has revealed that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation accumulation may be linked to human longevity; however, the role of guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) abnormalities modulated by G-protein beta-3 (GNB3) and nitrate (NO2) production associated with endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), commonly appearing in age-related diseases, remains undetermined. The association between the mtDNA 5178A/C, mtDNA 10398A/G, GNB3 C825T, and eNOS polymorphisms and longevity in a Uygur population (Xinjiang region, China) were investigated. A total of 275 experimental subjects aged ≥ 100 or with 4 generations currently living were screened for inclusion in the centenarian (>100 years) and nonagenarian groups (90-100 years), and 112 65-70 year old control subjects were selected. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to examine mtDNA 5178A/C, mtDNA 10398A/G, GNB3 C825T, and eNOS. Associations between polymorphic loci, genotypes, and longevity were analyzed. 165 included subjects (M∶F = 107∶58; mean age = 97 ± 3 years; mean age 100-113 years) were assigned to the centenarian (M∶F = 46/19; n = 65) and nonagenarian groups (M∶F = 61/39; n = 100). Associations between mtDNA C5178A and A10398G polymorphisms with longevity in the centenarian group with mtDNA genotype frequencies 5178A and 10398G were 66.79% and 36.8%. Applying the overwhelming longevity observed in Uygur populations, these findings demonstrate that mtDNA 5178A/C and 10398A/G, GNB3 C825T, and eNOS polymorphisms are useful as a genetic basis for longevity.

MeSH Terms

  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Alleles
  • China
  • DNA, Mitochondrial
  • Demography
  • Ethnic Groups
  • Female
  • Gene Frequency
  • Genetic Loci
  • Genetics, Population
  • Haplotypes
  • Heterotrimeric GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Humans
  • Longevity
  • Male
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III
  • Polymorphism, Genetic

Common genetic variants in ARNTL and NPAS2 and at chromosome 12p13 are associated with objectively measured sleep traits in the elderly.

To determine the association between common genetic variation in the clock gene pathway and objectively measured acti-graphic sleep and activity rhythm traits. Genetic association study in two population-based cohorts of elderly participants: the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) and the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study. Population-based. SOF participants (n = 1,407, 100% female, mean age 84 years) and MrOS participants (n = 2,527, 100% male, mean age 77 years) with actigraphy and genotype data. N/A. Common genetic variation in 30 candidate genes was captured using 529 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Sleep and activity rhythm traits were objectively measured using wrist actigraphy. In a region of high linkage disequilibrium on chromosome 12p13 containing the candidate gene GNB3, the rs1047776 A allele and the rs2238114 C allele were significantly associated with higher wake after sleep onset (meta-analysis: rs1047776 PADD = 2 × 10(-5), rs2238114 PADD = 5 × 10(-5)) and lower LRRC23 gene expression (rs1047776: ρ = -0.22, P = 0.02; rs2238114: ρ = -0.50, P = 5 × 10(-8)). In MrOS participants, SNPs in ARNTL and NPAS2, genes coding for binding partners, were associated with later sleep and wake onset time (sleep onset time: ARNTL rs3816358 P2DF = 1 × 10(-4), NPAS2 rs3768984 P2DF = 5 × 10(-5); wake onset time: rs3816358 P2DF = 3 × 10(-3), rs3768984 P2DF = 2 × 10(-4)) and the SNP interaction was significant (sleep onset time PINT = 0.003, wake onset time PINT = 0.001). A SNP association in the CLOCK gene replicated in the MrOS cohort, and rs3768984 was associated with sleep duration in a previously reported study. Cluster analysis identified four clusters of genetic associations. These findings support a role for common genetic variation in clock genes in the regulation of inter-related sleep traits in the elderly. Evans DS; Parimi N; Nievergelt CM; Blackwell T; Redline S; Ancoli-Israel S; Orwoll ES; Cummings SR; Stone KL; Tranah GJ. Common genetic variants in ARNTL and NPAS2 and at chromosome 12p13 are associated with objectively measured sleep traits in the elderly. SLEEP 2013;36(3):431-446.

MeSH Terms

  • ARNTL Transcription Factors
  • Actigraphy
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12
  • Circadian Rhythm
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Genetic Variation
  • Geriatric Assessment
  • Humans
  • Linkage Disequilibrium
  • Male
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • Polysomnography
  • Sleep
  • Sleep Wake Disorders


  • Genetic
  • SNP
  • actigraphy
  • aging
  • circadian