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Polycomb protein EED (hEED) (Embryonic ectoderm development protein) (WD protein associating with integrin cytoplasmic tails 1) (WAIT-1)


Biological functions of chromobox (CBX) proteins in stem cell self-renewal, lineage-commitment, cancer and development.

Epigenetic regulatory proteins support mammalian development, cancer, aging and tissue repair by controlling many cellular processes including stem cell self-renewal, lineage-commitment and senescence in both skeletal and non-skeletal tissues. We review here our knowledge of epigenetic regulatory protein complexes that support the formation of inaccessible heterochromatin and suppress expression of cell and tissue-type specific biomarkers during development. Maintenance and formation of heterochromatin critically depends on epigenetic regulators that recognize histone 3 lysine trimethylation at residues K9 and K27 (respectively, H3K9me3 and H3K27me3), which represent transcriptionally suppressive epigenetic marks. Three chromobox proteins (i.e., CBX1, CBX3 or CBX5) associated with the heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) complex are methyl readers that interpret H3K9me3 marks which are mediated by H3K9 methyltransferases (i.e., SUV39H1 or SUV39H2). Other chromobox proteins (i.e., CBX2, CBX4, CBX6, CBX7 and CBX8) recognize H3K27me3, which is deposited by Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2; a complex containing SUZ12, EED, RBAP46/48 and the methyl transferases EZH1 or EZH2). This second set of CBX proteins resides in PRC1, which has many subunits including other polycomb group factors (PCGF1, PCGF2, PCGF3, PCGF4, PCGF5, PCGF6), human polyhomeotic homologs (HPH1, HPH2, HPH3) and E3-ubiquitin ligases (RING1 or RING2). The latter enzymes catalyze the subsequent mono-ubiquitination of lysine 119 in H2A (H2AK119ub). We discuss biological, cellular and molecular functions of CBX proteins and their physiological and pathological activities in non-skeletal cells and tissues in anticipation of new discoveries on novel roles for CBX proteins in bone formation and skeletal development.


  • Aging
  • Bone
  • CBX1
  • CBX2
  • CBX3
  • CBX4
  • CBX5
  • CBX6
  • CBX7
  • CBX8
  • Cancer
  • Chromatin
  • Development
  • Epigenetics
  • H3K27me3
  • H3K9me3
  • Lineage-commitment
  • Osteoblast
  • Senescence
  • Stem cell

Economic evaluations of eHealth technologies: A systematic review.

Innovations in eHealth technologies have the potential to help older adults live independently, maintain their quality of life, and to reduce their health system dependency and health care expenditure. The objective of this study was to systematically review and appraise the quality of cost-effectiveness or utility studies assessing eHealth technologies in study populations involving older adults. We systematically searched multiple databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, NHS EED, and PsycINFO) for peer-reviewed studies published in English from 2000 to 2016 that examined cost-effectiveness (or utility) of eHealth technologies. The reporting quality of included studies was appraised using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards statement. Eleven full text articles met the inclusion criteria representing public and private health care systems. eHealth technologies evaluated by these studies includes computerized decision support system, a web-based physical activity intervention, internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy, telecare, and telehealth. Overall, the reporting quality of the studies included in the review was varied. Most studies demonstrated efficacy and cost-effectiveness of an intervention using a randomized control trial and statistical modeling, respectively. This review found limited information on the feasibility of adopting these technologies based on economic and organizational factors. This review identified few economic evaluations of eHealth technologies that included older adults. The quality of the current evidence is limited and further research is warranted to clearly demonstrate the long-term cost-effectiveness of eHealth technologies from the health care system and societal perspectives.

MeSH Terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Aging
  • Biomedical Technology
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis
  • Delivery of Health Care
  • Humans
  • Internet
  • Middle Aged
  • Telemedicine