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Denticleless protein homolog (DDB1- and CUL4-associated factor 2) (Lethal(2) denticleless protein homolog) (Retinoic acid-regulated nuclear matrix-associated protein) [CDT2] [CDW1] [DCAF2] [L2DTL] [RAMP]


Targeting DTL induces cell cycle arrest and senescence and suppresses cell growth and colony formation through TPX2 inhibition in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has an increasing incidence and high mortality. Surgical operation is not a comprehensive strategy for liver cancer. Moreover, tolerating systemic chemotherapy is difficult for patients with HCC because hepatic function is often impaired due to underlying cirrhosis. Therefore, a comprehensive strategy for cancer treatment should be developed. DTL (Cdc10-dependent transcript 2) is a critical regulator of cell cycle progression and genomic stability. In our previous study, the upregulation of DTL expression in aggressive HCC correlated positively with tumor grade and poor patient survival. We hypothesize that targeting DTL may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for liver cancer. DTL small interference RNAs were used to knock down DTL protein expression. A clonogenic assay, immunostaining, double thymidine block, imaging flow cytometry analysis, and a tumor spheroid formation assay were used to analyze the role of DTL in tumor cell growth, cell cycle progression, micronucleation, ploidy, and tumorigenicity. Our results demonstrated that targeting DTL reduced cell cycle regulators and chromosome segregation genes, resulting in increased cell micronucleation. DTL depletion inhibited liver cancer cell growth, increased senescence, and reduced tumorigenesis. DTL depletion resulted in the disruption of the mitotic proteins cyclin B, CDK1, securin, seprase, Aurora A, and Aurora B as well as the upregulation of the cell cycle arrest gene [i]p21[/i]. A rescue assay indicated that DTL should be targeted through TPX2 downregulation for cancer cell growth inhibition. Moreover, DTL silencing inhibited the growth of patient-derived primary cultured HCC cells. Our study results indicate that DTL is a potential novel target gene for treating liver cancer through liver cancer cell senescence induction. Furthermore, our results provide insights into molecular mechanisms for targeting DTL in liver cancer cells. The results also indicate several other starting points for future preclinical and clinical studies on liver cancer treatment.


  • DTL
  • TPX2
  • cell cycle
  • hepatocellular carcinoma
  • senescence

Expression of aquaporins-1 and -2 during nephrogenesis and in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

Aquaporin-1 (AQP1), located in proximal tubules (PT) and descending thin limbs of Henle (DTL), and aquaporin-2 (AQP2), located in collecting ducts (CD), are channels involved in water transport across renal tubule epithelia. Using antibodies against AQP1 and AQP2, we here show expression of AQP1 and AQP2 in normal human developing and adult kidneys and in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Unlike in rats, AQP1 and AQP2 are expressed early during human nephrogenesis (12-wk gestation). AQP1 was first seen in developing PT epithelia, predominantly in apical cell membranes, and, at 15 wk, was also detected in DTL. AQP2 was seen in apical cell membranes of the branching ureteric bud and CD system from 12 wk and throughout development. In adult normal kidneys, AQP1 was localized to apical and basolateral membrane domains of PT and DTL, whereas AQP2 was restricted to principal cells of CD. This distribution of AQP1 and AQP2 was also seen in early stage ADPKD, except that AQP1 was mostly located in the apical membrane region of expanded PT. In end-stage ADPKD, two-thirds of the cysts expressed either AQP1 or AQP2, but these two water channels were never colocalized in the same cyst. Western blot analysis showed maximal expression of AQP1 and AQP2 in normal adult kidneys, lower levels in fetal kidneys, and decreases associated with degree of cystic progression in ADPKD. These data 1) demonstrate specific, mutually exclusive localization of AQP1 and AQP2 in human fetal and adult kidneys; 2) show that both channels are expressed early during nephrogenesis; and 3) show that the mutual exclusivity of localization is maintained even into end-stage ADPKD.

MeSH Terms

  • Aging
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Animals, Newborn
  • Aquaporin 1
  • Aquaporin 2
  • Aquaporin 6
  • Aquaporins
  • Blood Group Antigens
  • Blotting, Western
  • Embryonic and Fetal Development
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Ion Channels
  • Kidney
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Polycystic Kidney, Autosomal Dominant
  • Rats
  • Reference Values
  • Staining and Labeling