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Homeobox protein DLX-5


Inhibition of microRNA-27b-3p relieves osteoarthritis pain via regulation of KDM4B-dependent DLX5.

Osteoarthritis (OA) represents a progressive degenerative disorder that predominantly affects the synovial membranes of joints. Recent studies have highlighted the significant role played by microRNAs (miRNAs) in OA development. The current study aimed to elucidate the underlying modulatory role of miR-27b-3p in the development of OA. The expression of miR-27b-3p in the OA patients and rat models post anterior cruciate ligament transection operation was measured using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction, through which overexpressed miR-27b-3p was found in both of the samples. To further explore the miR-27b-3p functions in OA, western blot analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and β-galactosidase activity assay were conducted with the results showing that knockdown of miR-27b-3p promoted expression of the osteogenic differentiation markers while inhibiting expression of the adipogenic differentiation markers, inflammatory factors, and cellular senescence of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). After that, the interactions between miR-27b-3p, lysine Demethylase 4B (KDM4B), and Distal-Less Homeobox 5 (DLX5) identified using dual-luciferase reporter gene assay and ChIP assay revealed that miR-27b-3p inhibited KDM4B and further reduced expression of DLX5. Finally, the paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) and paw withdrawal latency (PWL) were assessed in rat models, and increased PWT and PWL were detected after miR-27b-3p silencing. In conclusion, suppression of miR-27b-3p could enhance KDM4B and DLX5 to alleviate OA pain, shedding light on a new potential therapeutic target for OA.


  • adipogenic differentiation
  • cell senescence
  • distal-less homeobox 5
  • lysine demethylase 4B
  • mesenchymal stem cells
  • microRNA-27b-3p
  • osteoarthritis pain
  • osteogenic differentiation

Detection and evaluation of DNA methylation markers found at SCGN and KLF14 loci to estimate human age.

Recent developments in the analysis of epigenetic DNA methylation patterns have demonstrated that certain genetic loci show a linear correlation with chronological age. It is the goal of this study to identify a new set of epigenetic methylation markers for the forensic estimation of human age. A total number of 27 CpG sites at three genetic loci, SCGN, DLX5 and KLF14, were examined to evaluate the correlation of their methylation status with age. These sites were evaluated using 72 blood samples and 91 saliva samples collected from volunteers with ages ranging from 5 to 73 years. DNA was bisulfite modified followed by PCR amplification and pyrosequencing to determine the level of DNA methylation at each CpG site. In this study, certain CpG sites in SCGN and KLF14 loci showed methylation levels that were correlated with chronological age, however, the tested CpG sites in DLX5 did not show a correlation with age. Using a 52-saliva sample training set, two age-predictor models were developed by means of a multivariate linear regression analysis for age prediction. The two models performed similarly with a single-locus model explaining 85% of the age variance at a mean absolute deviation of 5.8 years and a dual-locus model explaining 84% of the age variance with a mean absolute deviation of 6.2 years. In the validation set, the mean absolute deviation was measured to be 8.0 years and 7.1 years for the single- and dual-locus model, respectively. Another age predictor model was also developed using a 40-blood sample training set that accounted for 71% of the age variance. This model gave a mean absolute deviation of 6.6 years for the training set and 10.3years for the validation set. The results indicate that specific CpGs in SCGN and KLF14 can be used as potential epigenetic markers to estimate age using saliva and blood specimens. These epigenetic markers could provide important information in cases where the determination of a suspect's age is critical in developing investigative leads.

MeSH Terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aging
  • Child
  • CpG Islands
  • DNA
  • DNA Methylation
  • Epigenesis, Genetic
  • Genetic Markers
  • Humans
  • Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Saliva
  • Secretagogins
  • Sp Transcription Factors
  • Young Adult


  • Age prediction
  • DNA methylation
  • Epigenetic
  • Forensic
  • Pyrosequencing