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Type I iodothyronine deiodinase (EC (5DI) (DIOI) (Type 1 DI) (Type-I 5'-deiodinase) [ITDI1] [TXDI1]


Orchidectomy of middle-aged rats decreases liver deiodinase 1 and pituitary deiodinase 2 activity.

Endogenous androgens are involved in regulation of thyroid function and metabolism of thyroid hormones. As serum testosterone level progressively declines with age, this regulation may change. We tested how androgen deprivation, achieved by orchidectomy, affects thyroid homeostasis in middle-aged rats. Fifteen-month-old Wistar rats were orchidectomized (Orx) or sham-operated under ketamine anesthesia (15 mg/kg body weight). Five weeks after the surgery, animals were decapitated. Thyroids were used for histomorphometric and ultrastructural examinations and together with livers and pituitaries for real-time quantitative PCR and deiodinase (DIO) activity measurements. Serum testosterone, TSH, l-thyroxine (T(4)), and cholesterol (Chol) levels were determined. As expected, middle-aged control rats had lower (P<0.05) testosterone and T(4) compared with 3-month-old males. In the Orx middle-aged group, we detected diminished serum testosterone (P<0.05), no change in TSH and T(4) levels, and higher Chol level (P<0.05), in comparison with age-matched controls. Histomorphometric analysis of thyroid tissue revealed decreased relative volume densities of follicles and colloid (P<0.05). Relevant gene expressions and DIO1 enzyme activity were not changed in the thyroids of Orx rats. Liver Dio1 gene expression and DIO1 activity were decreased (P<0.05) in comparison with the control values. Pituitary levels of TSHβ, Dio1, and Dio2 mRNAs did not change, while DIO2 activity decreased (P<0.05). In conclusion, orchidectomy of middle-aged rats affected thyroid structure with no effect on serum T(4) and TSH. However, decreased liver DIO1 and pituitary DIO2 enzyme activities indicate compensatory-adaptive changes in local T(3) production.

MeSH Terms

  • Aging
  • Animals
  • Body Weight
  • Cholesterol
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic
  • Iodide Peroxidase
  • Liver
  • Male
  • Orchiectomy
  • Pituitary Gland
  • Random Allocation
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Testosterone
  • Thyroid Gland
  • Thyroxine

The association of polymorphisms in the type 1 and 2 deiodinase genes with circulating thyroid hormone parameters and atrophy of the medial temporal lobe.

Thyroid function has been related to Alzheimer disease (AD) and neuroimaging markers thereof. Whether thyroid dysfunction contributes to or results from developing AD remains unclear. Variations in the deiodinase type 1 (DIO1) and type 2 (DIO2) genes that potentially alter thyroid hormone bioactivity may help in elucidating the role of thyroid function in AD. We investigated the association of recently identified polymorphisms in the DIO1 (D1a-C/T, D1b-A/G) and DIO2 (D2-ORFa-Gly3Asp, D2-Thr92Ala) genes with circulating thyroid parameters and early neuroimaging markers of AD. The Rotterdam Scan Study is a population-based cohort study among 1,077 elderly individuals aged 60-90 yr. DIO1 and DIO2 polymorphisms and serum TSH, free T4, T3, and reverse T3 (rT3) levels were determined in 995 nondemented elderly, including 473 persons with assessments of hippocampal and amygdalar volume on brain magnetic resonance imaging. Carriers of the D1a-T allele had higher serum free T4 and rT3, lower T3, and lower T3/rT3. The D1b-G allele was associated with higher serum T3 and T3/rT3. The DIO2 variants were not associated with serum thyroid parameters. No associations were found with hippocampal or amygdalar volume. This is the first study to report an association of D1a-C/T and D1b-A/G polymorphisms with iodothyronine levels in the elderly. Polymorphisms in the DIO1 and DIO2 genes are not associated with early magnetic resonance imaging markers of AD. This suggests that the previously reported association between iodothyronine levels and brain atrophy reflects comorbidity or nonthyroidal illness rather than thyroid hormones being involved in developing AD.

MeSH Terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Aging
  • Alzheimer Disease
  • Amygdala
  • Atrophy
  • Early Diagnosis
  • Female
  • Genetic Linkage
  • Genetic Markers
  • Hippocampus
  • Humans
  • Iodide Peroxidase
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Polymorphism, Genetic
  • Temporal Lobe
  • Thyroid Diseases
  • Thyroxine
  • Triiodothyronine