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Sphingolipid delta(4)-desaturase DES1 (EC (Cell migration-inducing gene 15 protein) (Degenerative spermatocyte homolog 1) (Dihydroceramide desaturase-1) (Membrane lipid desaturase) [DES1] [MLD] [MIG15]


[Frailty: Prevalence in the Resident Population of Germany 70 - 79 Years of Age - a Population-Based Approach].

In all countries life expectancy is rising, and many older persons spend a longer period in good health. Nevertheless, frailty is present in older people and can be considered as a risk factor for limitations. The "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1) 2008 - 2011 comprised interviews, examinations and tests. Data on 1110 community-dwelling people aged 70 to 79 years participating in DEGS1 with full records on frailty were analysed. Physical frailty was defined as exhaustion (SF-36 item), low grip strength, slowness (Timed Up-and-Go test > 15 seconds or unable to perform) and low physical activity (no sports or exertion). In men 36,6% (CI 32,2 - 41,2) were classified as pre-frail, 2,5% (CI 1,4 - 4,4) as frail; in women 41,8% (CI 37,3 - 46,5) were classified as pre-frail, and 2,9% (CI 1,9 - 4,5) as frail. Frail persons significantly show more polypharmacy, recurrent falls, receive more frequently nursing care financial benefits, are officially recognized disabled and have poor social support. This population-based information may help to identify frail people with high risk of adverse health outcomes. Prediction models in operative anaesthesiology for specific health care settings should be developed.

MeSH Terms

  • Aged
  • Female
  • Frail Elderly
  • Frailty
  • Geriatrics
  • Germany
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prevalence

Physical exercise and cognitive function across the life span: Results of a nationwide population-based study.

To examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between physical exercise and cognitive function across different age groups in a nationwide population-based sample of adults aged 18-79 years in Germany. Cross-sectional/prospective. Cognitive function was assessed in the mental health module of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1-MH, 2009-2012, n=3535), using a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. Cognitive domain scores for executive function and memory were derived from confirmatory factor analysis. Regular physical exercise in the last three months was assessed by self-report and defined as no exercise, <2 and ≥2h (hours) of exercise per week. A subgroup of DEGS1-MH participants who previously participated in the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98, 1997-1999, n=1624) enabled longitudinal analyses with a mean follow-up of 12.4 years. Compared to no exercise, more weekly physical exercise was associated with better executive function in cross-sectional (<2h: β=0.12; ≥2h: β=0.17; all p<0.001) and longitudinal analyses (<2h: β=0.14, p<0.001; ≥2h: β=0.15, p=0.001) using linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption and obesity. Slightly weaker associations were found for memory in cross-sectional (<2h: β=0.08, p=0.009; ≥2h: β=0.08, p=0.026) and longitudinal analysis (<2h: β=0.09, p=0.036; ≥2h: β=0.08, p=0.114). There was no evidence of interaction between physical exercise and age. Higher levels of physical exercise were associated with better executive function and memory in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses with no evidence for differential effects by age.

MeSH Terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Cognition
  • Cognitive Aging
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Executive Function
  • Exercise
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Linear Models
  • Longevity
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Memory
  • Middle Aged
  • Neuropsychological Tests
  • Population Surveillance
  • Prospective Studies
  • Self Report
  • Young Adult


  • Executive function
  • Health examination survey
  • Longitudinal studies
  • Memory
  • Neuropsychological assessment
  • Risk factors