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Lipoamide acyltransferase component of branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex, mitochondrial precursor (EC (52 kDa mitochondrial autoantigen of primary biliary cirrhosis) (Branched chain 2-oxo-acid dehydrogenase complex component E2) (BCOADC-E2) (Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex component E2) (BCKAD-E2) (BCKADE2) (Dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase component of branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex) (Dihydrolipoamide branched chain transacylase) (Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue (2-methylpropanoyl)transferase) [BCATE2]


Diurnal rhythms of heart and respiratory rates in donkeys of different age groups during the cold-dry and hot-dry seasons in a tropical savannah.

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of season on diurnal rhythms of heart (HR) and respiratory rates (RespR) in the adult, yearling, and foal donkeys during the cold-dry and hot-dry seasons under natural light/dark cycle. The resting HR and RespR were recorded bihourly for 24 consecutive hours from 06:00 to 06:00 h (GMT 1) in 30, clinically healthy donkeys (10 adults,10 yearlings, and 10 foals). Dry-bulb temperature (DBT), relative humidity (RH), temperature-humidity index (THI) and wet-bulb globe temperature index (WBGT) inside the pen were recorded bihourly from 06:00 to 06:00 h. Values of DBT, THI, and WBGT obtained during the hot-dry season were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than corresponding values recorded during the cold-dry season. Application of single-cosinor procedure showed that HR and RespR exhibited daily rhythmicity in both seasons. The mesors of the HR in adult (41.51 ± 0.34 beats/min [bpm]), yearling (40.80 ± 0.43 bpm), and foal (47.55 ± 0.40 bpm) donkeys during the cold-dry season were significantly (P < 0.01) lower, compared to the corresponding values of 48.4 ± 0.40 bpm, 50.42 ± 0.52 bpm and 58.10 ± 0.50 bpm, respectively during the hot-dry season. The mesors of RespR in adult, yearling, and foal donkeys during the hot-dry season were higher (P < 0.05), when compared to the corresponding values recorded in the cold-dry season. The HR and RespR of foals were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of the adult and yearling donkeys. Amplitudes of HR and RespR were higher during the hot-dry season than the cold-dry season. In conclusion, seasonal changes affect diurnal rhythmicity of HR and RespR of adult, yearling, and foal donkeys during the cold-dry and hot-dry seasons. The HR and RespR of donkeys vary with age, with higher values in the foals than the adult and yearling donkeys in both seasons.

MeSH Terms

  • Aging
  • Animals
  • Circadian Rhythm
  • Equidae
  • Female
  • Grassland
  • Heart Rate
  • Male
  • Respiratory Rate
  • Seasons
  • Tropical Climate


  • Cold-dry season
  • diurnal rhythm
  • heart rate
  • hot-dry season
  • respiratory rate

Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Does Not Facilitate Dynamic Balance Task Learning in Healthy Old Adults.

Older adults frequently experience a decrease in balance control that leads to increased numbers of falls, injuries and hospitalization. Therefore, evaluating older adults' ability to maintain balance and examining new approaches to counteract age-related decline in balance control is of great importance for fall prevention and healthy aging. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have been shown to beneficially influence motor behavior and motor learning. In the present study, we investigated the influence of tDCS applied over the leg area of the primary motor cortex (M1) on balance task learning of healthy elderly in a dynamic balance task (DBT). In total, 30 older adults were enrolled in a cross-sectional, randomized design including two consecutive DBT training sessions. Only during the first DBT session, either 20 min of anodal tDCS (a-tDCS) or sham tDCS (s-tDCS) were applied and learning improvement was compared between the two groups. Our data showed that both groups successfully learned to perform the DBT on both training sessions. Interestingly, between-group analyses revealed no difference between the a-tDCS and the s-tDCS group regarding their level of task learning. These results indicate that the concurrent application of tDCS over M1 leg area did not elicit DBT learning enhancement in our study cohort. However, a regression analysis revealed that DBT performance can be predicted by the kinematic profile of the movement, a finding that may provide new insights for individualized approaches of treating balance and gait disorders.


  • balance learning
  • dynamic balance task
  • healthy aging
  • kinematics
  • non-invasive brain stimulation
  • transcranial direct current stimulation

The accumulation of organotins in adult and seed oysters from selected estuaries prior to the introduction of U.K. regulations governing the use of tributyltin-based antifouling paints.

Between April and November, 1985, a study of the levels of organotins in adult and seed Crassostrea gigas grown in the southwest and southeast of England was carried out. This work corresponds with a similar study of organotin water levels (reported separately). The analytical procedure used was directly coupled high performance liquid chromatography-flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Individual adult oysters and groups of 20-40 seed oysters were taken for analysis on a monthly basis. The profiles of tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT) are discussed in relation to each other and levels found in the waters. In general, levels of all three organotin species were found to be higher in the seed oysters. Mean levels of TBT reached 3.1 micrograms g-1 in seed oysters from the Exe, Devon, in October, whereas mean levels of DBT and MBT reached 16.1 and 16.7 micrograms g-1 in Teign, Devon, seed oysters in October. Bioconcentration factors of approximately 1000 were found, but seem to be greater when lower levels of TBT were present in the water, perhaps indicating a more 'efficient' removal from the water. The degree of shell thickening was calculated for all oysters submitted for analysis. The highest percentage of adult oysters with severely thickened shells was found at Tollesbury Fleet, where 61% of oysters showed shell thickness index values of six or less. Generally, two peaks in TBT levels in the oysters were observed, in the late spring and early summer: these seem to correlate with peak levels of TBT in the waters immediately preceding these times. A large proportion of the DBT and MBT found in the oysters seems to come from the metabolism of the TBT ingested. It is suggested that high sediment loadings may contribute to the severe deformation of oysters grown at Tollesbury Fleet, but only in the presence of TBT.

MeSH Terms

  • Aging
  • Animals
  • Fresh Water
  • Organotin Compounds
  • Ostreidae
  • Pain
  • Tin
  • Trialkyltin Compounds
  • United Kingdom
  • Water Pollutants
  • Water Pollution