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Cytochrome P450 11B1, mitochondrial precursor (CYPXIB1) (Cytochrome P-450c11) (Cytochrome P450C11) (Steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase, CYP11B1) (EC [S11BH]


Intratumoral heterogeneity of the tumor cells based on in situ cortisol excess in cortisol-producing adenomas; ∼An association among morphometry, genotype and cellular senescence∼.

Cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas (CPAs) are associated with ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome and histologically composed of two cellular subtypes: compact (lipid-poor) and clear (lipid-rich) tumor cells. However, the details of hormonal and biological activities of these tumor cells have remained unknown, especially in CPAs. CPAs frequently harbored unique histological features different from those of aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) including a senescent phenotype. Therefore, we explored the association between morphological features and the immunoreactivity of steroidogenic enzymes in CPAs with different genotypes and compared them with cellular senescence markers as well as clinicopathological factors of the cases. Hormonal activities (3βHSD, CYP21A, CYP17A1, CYP11B1 and DHEA-ST) and cellular senescence markers (p16, p21 and Ki-67) within different morphological features (clear and compact) were evaluated in 40 CPAs. CPA genotypes (PRKACA, [[[[[[GNAS]]]]]] and CTNNB1) were examined by Sanger sequencing and then compared them with the factors above. p21 immunoreactivity was significantly positively correlated with that of CYP21A (p = 0.0110), CYP17A1 (p = 0.0356) and DHEA-ST (p = 0.0420) but inversely with tumor size (p = 0.0015). CYP21A (p = 0.0016), CYP11B1 (p = 0.0001), CYP17A1 (p < 0.0001) and p16 (p = 0.0137) immunoreactivity were all significantly higher in compact cells than those in clear cells. CYP17A1 (p = 0.0056) and 3βHSD (p = 0.0437) immunoreactivity was significantly higher in PRKACA-mutated than wild type CPAs. p16 immunoreactivity and serum DHEA-S level were both significantly higher in [[[[[[GNAS]]]]]]-mutated than PRKACA-mutated (p = 0.0250) and wild type (p = 0.0180) CPAs. Results of our present study did demonstrate that compact tumor cells were hormonally active and more senescent than clear tumor cells in CPAs. PRKACA- and [[[[[[GNAS]]]]]]-mutated tumor cells were more hormonally active and senescent than those without mutations despite the similar morphological features. We herein proposed a novel histological classification of the tumor cell subtypes based on in situ cortisol excess, genotypes and the status of cell senescence in CPAs.


  • CYP11B1
  • CYP17A
  • Cellular senescence
  • Compact and clear cells
  • Cortisol-producing adenoma

Localization of Sonic hedgehog secreting and receiving cells in the developing and adult rat adrenal cortex.

Sonic hedgehog signaling was recently demonstrated to play an important role in murine adrenal cortex development. The organization of the rat adrenal differs from that of the mouse, with the zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata separated by an undifferentiated zone in the rat, but not in the mouse. In the present study we aimed to determine the mRNA expression patterns of Sonic hedgehog and the hedgehog signaling pathway components Patched-1 and Gli1 in the developing and adult rat adrenal. Sonic hedgehog expression was detected at the periphery of the cortex in cells lacking CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 expression, while signal-receiving cells were localized in the overlying capsule mesenchyme. Using combined in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we found that the cells expressing Sonic hedgehog lie between the CYP11B2 and CYP11B1 layers, and thus Sonic hedgehog expression defines one cell population of the undifferentiated zone.

MeSH Terms

  • Adrenal Cortex
  • Aging
  • Animals
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Hedgehog Proteins
  • Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors
  • Mice
  • Patched Receptors
  • Patched-1 Receptor
  • Protein Transport
  • Rats
  • Receptors, Cell Surface
  • Zinc Finger Protein GLI1

Joint analysis of the influence of CYP11B1 and DGAT1 genetic variation on milk production, somatic cell score, conformation, reproduction, and productive lifespan in German Holstein cattle.

Recent publications indicate genetic variation in milk production traits on proximal BTA14, which cannot be explained solely with genetic variation in the DGAT1 gene. To elucidate these QTL effects, animals from a German Holstein granddaughter design (18 families, 1,291 sons) were genotyped for CYP11B1 (V30A) and DGAT1 (K232A) polymorphisms. Frequencies of alleles of maternal descent were estimated for CYP11B1(V) (0.776) and DGAT1(K) (0.549). Allele substitution effects (alpha/2) were first calculated for both alleles in separate models and then in a joint model. From the joint analysis, CYP11B1(V) effects on fat content ( 0.04%) and protein content ( 0.01%) were positive. Effects on milk yield (-82 kg), fat yield (-0.5 kg), and protein yield (-1.9 kg) were negative. Compared with the individual analysis, DGAT1(K) effects on fat content ( 0.28%), protein content ( 0.06%), and milk yield (-258 kg) were reduced; fat yield ( 10.8 kg) was enhanced; and protein yield (-3.8 kg) was reduced. In the joint analysis, allele substitution effects of CYP11B1(V) and DGAT1(K) together explained more of the variation in milk production traits than DGAT1(K) alone. Further significant effects were found for CYP11B1(V) and DGAT1(K) among 6 reproduction traits and 14 conformational traits. These observations indicate a possible negative influence of DGAT1(K) on maternal nonreturn rate, and thus, on length of productive life.

MeSH Terms

  • Animals
  • Breeding
  • Cattle
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Diacylglycerol O-Acyltransferase
  • Female
  • Genetic Linkage
  • Genetic Markers
  • Genetic Variation
  • Genotype
  • Longevity
  • Male
  • Milk
  • Quantitative Trait Loci
  • Reproduction
  • Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase

Implication of ZOG protein (zona glomerulosa-specific protein) in zone development of the adrenal cortex.

The three zones of adrenal cortex are thought to arise from a single multipotential stem cell. Immunohistochemical studies of fetal and adult adrenals using an antibody against a previously-cloned ZOG protein, a rat homolog of Pref-1, were conducted to explore its roles in the differentiation of cortical tissues. At the early embryonic stage, ZOG was already expressed in adrenogonadal primordial cells. The ZOG-positive cells gradually formed the adrenal primordium by E14.5. By E17.5 the expression was repressed in the inner part of the aggregate and these cells began to express CYP11B1. The ZOG-positive cells at this stage existed at the periphery of the aggregate but they did not express CYP11B2 yet. Not until E20.5 did the aldosteronogenic cells appear among the ZOG-positive cells at the outermost part of the gland. Based on these and the other findings the zonal development of the adrenal cortex is discussed.

MeSH Terms

  • Adrenal Cortex
  • Aging
  • Aldosterone
  • Animals
  • Antigens
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Embryonic and Fetal Development
  • Fetus
  • Fushi Tarazu Transcription Factors
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Rats
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear
  • Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase
  • Steroidogenic Factor 1
  • Transcription Factors
  • Zona Reticularis