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C-X-C motif chemokine 5 precursor (ENA-78(1-78)) (Epithelial-derived neutrophil-activating protein 78) (Neutrophil-activating peptide ENA-78) (Small-inducible cytokine B5) [Contains: ENA-78(8-78); ENA-78(9-78)] [ENA78] [SCYB5]


CXCL5-CXCR2 signaling is a senescence-associated secretory phenotype in preimplantation embryos.

Pregnancy rate of women decreases with age due to declining quality of oocytes and embryos. However, there is no established method to improve pregnancy rate in aging women. In this study, we identified a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) factor partially responsible for the decline in embryo implantation potential. Based on microarray analysis using young and aging human embryos at the same morphological grade, 702 genes showed >fivefold increases in aging human blastocysts. Among these genes, C-X-C motif chemokine 5 (CXCL5) showed 7.7-fold increases in aging human blastocysts. However, no-age-dependent changes in expression of the CXCR2, the cognate receptor for CXCL5, were found. In aging mice, Cxcl5 transcript levels were also increased in oocytes and embryos. Treatment of young mouse embryos with CXCL5 decreased implantation rates, together with increased expression of aging markers (P53, P21, Pai-1, and Il-6). Moreover, CXCL5 treatment suppressed trophoblast outgrowth in young mouse blastocysts. Conversely, suppression of CXCL5-CXCR2 signaling in aging mouse embryos using neutralizing antibodies and a receptor antagonist improved the implantation rate, leading to increases in pregnancy and delivery of normal pups. The gene expression pattern of these embryos was comparable to that in young mouse embryos showing enriched cell proliferation-related pathways. In conclusion, we identified CXCL5 as a SASP factor in human and mouse embryos and suppression of CXCL5-CXCR2 signaling during embryo culture improved pregnancy success in aging mice. Future analysis on CXCL5-CXCR2 signaling suppression in human embryos could be the basis to improve embryo development and pregnancy outcome in middle-aged infertile patients.


  • CXCL5
  • CXCR2
  • SASP
  • aging
  • infertility
  • preimplantation embryo

Hassall's corpuscles with cellular-senescence features maintain IFNα production through neutrophils and pDC activation in the thymus.

Hassall's corpuscles (HCs) are composed of cornifying, terminally differentiated medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) that are developed under the control of Aire. Here, we demonstrated that HC-mTECs show features of cellular senescence and produce inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including CXCL5, thereby recruiting and activating neutrophils to produce IL-23 in the thymic medulla. We further indicated that thymic plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) expressing IL-23 receptors constitutively produced Ifna, which plays a role in single positive (SP) cell maturation, in an Il23a-dependent manner. Neutrophil depletion with anti-Ly6G antibody injection resulted in a significant decrease of Ifna expression in the thymic pDCs, suggesting that thymic neutrophil activation underlies the Ifna expression in thymic pDCs in steady state conditions. A New Zealand White mouse strain showing HC hyperplasia exhibited greater numbers and activation of thymic neutrophils and pDCs than B6 mice, whereas Aire-deficient B6 mice with defective HC development and SP thymocyte maturation showed significantly compromised numbers and activation of these cells. These results collectively suggested that HC-mTECs with cell-senescence features initiate a unique cell activation cascade including neutrophils and pDCs leading to the constitutive IFNα expression required for SP T-cell maturation in the thymic medulla.

MeSH Terms

  • Animals
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Cellular Senescence
  • Dendritic Cells
  • Humans
  • Interferon-alpha
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred Strains
  • Neutrophils
  • Thymus Gland


  • Hassall’s bodies
  • cell senescence
  • mTEC
  • thymic epithelial cells
  • type I interferon

Urine Cytokine and Chemokine Levels Predict Urinary Tract Infection Severity Independent of Uropathogen, Urine Bacterial Burden, Host Genetics, and Host Age.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common infections worldwide. Diagnosing UTIs in older adults poses a significant challenge as asymptomatic colonization is common. Identification of a noninvasive profile that predicts likelihood of progressing from urine colonization to severe disease would provide a significant advantage in clinical practice. We monitored colonization susceptibility, disease severity, and immune response to two uropathogens in two mouse strains across three age groups to identify predictors of infection outcome. [i]Proteus mirabilis[/i] caused more severe disease than [i]Escherichia coli[/i], regardless of mouse strain or age, and was associated with differences in interleukin-1β (IL-1β), beta interferon (IFN-β), CXCL5 (LIX), CCL5 (RANTES), and CCL2 (MCP-1). In a comparison of responses to infection across age groups, mature adult mice were better able to control colonization and prevent progression to kidney colonization and bacteremia than young or aged mice, regardless of mouse strain or bacterial species, and this was associated with differences in IL-23, CXCL1, and CCL5. A bimodal distribution was noted for urine colonization, which was strongly associated with bladder CFU counts and the magnitude of the immune response but independent of age or disease severity. To determine the value of urine cytokine and chemokine levels for predicting severe disease, all infection data sets were combined and subjected to a series of logistic regressions. A multivariate model incorporating IL-1β, CXCL1, and CCL2 had strong predictive value for identifying mice that did not develop kidney colonization or bacteremia, regardless of mouse genetic background, age, infecting bacterial species, or urine bacterial burden. In conclusion, urine cytokine profiles could potentially serve as a noninvasive decision support tool in clinical practice and contribute to antimicrobial stewardship.

MeSH Terms

  • Animals
  • Bacteremia
  • Biomarkers
  • Chemokines
  • Colony Count, Microbial
  • Cytokines
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Escherichia coli
  • Escherichia coli Infections
  • Kidney
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Inbred CBA
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Proteus Infections
  • Proteus mirabilis
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Urinary Tract Infections


  • Escherichia coli
  • Proteus mirabilis
  • UTI
  • aging
  • bacteremia
  • chemokine
  • cytokine
  • pyelonephritis
  • urinary tract infection

Simultaneous time course analysis of multiple markers based on DNA microarray in incised wound in skeletal muscle for wound aging.

Assessment of incised wound age in skeletal muscles is important because fatal injuries are often complicated with muscle involvement. Transcriptome of injured skeletal muscle along with histopathological and immunohistochemistry staining, were analyzed to explore the biological effect of incised injuries using a mouse incised injury model. An incisional wound was made at the biceps femoris muscle of anesthetized mice, and the muscles were sampled at 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48h post-injury. DNA microarray analysis using RNA extracted from the muscle samples of 12h post-injury identified 3,655 upregulated and 3,583 downregulated genes. Referring to the results of the gene ontology and gene expression pathway analysis, time course expression of five cytokines, namely chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4 (CCL4), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5 (CXCL5), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin- 6 (IL-6) and interleukin-7 (IL-7), were analyzed by quantative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). CXCL5 was the most upregulated gene throughout the post-injury period with higher expression from 6 through 36h post injury. Upregulation of CCL4 and IL-1β was also persisted until 36h post injury. IL-6 mRNA was highly and rapidly expressed at 6h post-injury followed by significant decrease at 12h. Unlike other four cytokines, IL-7 showed slow and steady increasing over time until 48h post-injury. Immunohistochemical staining of post-injury samples showed gradual mild increase of staining intensity proportional to increasing time points especially around the wound edges. The present study highlights the unique dynamics of each cytokine and reflects their roles in the process of muscle wound healing, and suggests the potential of them as a tool for forensic wound age estimation.

MeSH Terms

  • Animals
  • Cytokines
  • Forensic Pathology
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Interleukin-6
  • Mice
  • Muscle, Skeletal
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Time Factors
  • Wound Healing


  • Cytokines
  • DNA microarray
  • Gene expression
  • Incised wound
  • Skeletal muscle
  • Wound aging

Gut mucosal injury in neonates is marked by macrophage infiltration in contrast to pleomorphic infiltrates in adult: evidence from an animal model.

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an inflammatory bowel necrosis of premature infants. In tissue samples of NEC, we identified numerous macrophages and a few neutrophils but not many lymphocytes. We hypothesized that these pathoanatomic characteristics of NEC represent a common tissue injury response of the gastrointestinal tract to a variety of insults at a specific stage of gut development. To evaluate developmental changes in mucosal inflammatory response, we used trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced inflammation as a nonspecific insult and compared mucosal injury in newborn vs. adult mice. Enterocolitis was induced in 10-day-old pups and adult mice (n = 25 animals per group) by administering TNBS by gavage and enema. Leukocyte populations were enumerated in human NEC and in murine TNBS-enterocolitis using quantitative immunofluorescence. Chemokine expression was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunoblots, and immunohistochemistry. Macrophage recruitment was investigated ex vivo using intestinal tissue-conditioned media and bone marrow-derived macrophages in a microchemotaxis assay. Similar to human NEC, TNBS enterocolitis in pups was marked by a macrophage-rich leukocyte infiltrate in affected tissue. In contrast, TNBS-enterocolitis in adult mice was associated with pleomorphic leukocyte infiltrates. Macrophage precursors were recruited to murine neonatal gastrointestinal tract by the chemokine CXCL5, a known chemoattractant for myeloid cells. We also demonstrated increased expression of CXCL5 in surgically resected tissue samples of human NEC, indicating that a similar pathway was active in NEC. We concluded that gut mucosal injury in the murine neonate is marked by a macrophage-rich leukocyte infiltrate, which contrasts with the pleomorphic leukocyte infiltrates in adult mice. In murine neonatal enterocolitis, macrophages were recruited to the inflamed gut mucosa by the chemokine CXCL5, indicating that CXCL5 and its cognate receptor CXCR2 merit further investigation as potential therapeutic targets in NEC.

MeSH Terms

  • Aging
  • Animals
  • Animals, Newborn
  • Blotting, Western
  • Chemokine CXCL5
  • Chemotaxis, Leukocyte
  • Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Premature
  • Inflammation
  • Intestinal Diseases
  • Intestinal Mucosa
  • Macrophages
  • Mice
  • Neutrophil Infiltration
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Risk Factors
  • Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid