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Cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (EC (Aspartate 1-decarboxylase) (EC (Cysteine-sulfinate decarboxylase) (Sulfinoalanine decarboxylase) [CSD]


The intervention effect of licorice in d-galactose induced aging rats by regulating the taurine metabolic pathway.

Licorice, an edible and officinal plant material, has attracted considerable attention for its wide range of pharmacological activities. Our previous study showed that licorice can ameliorate cognitive damage and improve oxidative stress and apoptosis in aging rats induced by d-galactose (d-gal). In this study, in order to further explore the changes of the metabolic profile during the aging process and the antiaging mechanism of licorice, the 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach was used to analyze serum and urine samples and identify a potential biomarker in d-gal induced aging rats. The results revealed that the taurine metabolic pathway was significantly correlated with the ageing process in d-gal induced rats. Furthermore, the taurine contents were significantly decreased in both the serum and urine samples of aging rats compared with the controls. At the same time, the levels of cysteine dioxygenase type I (CDO1), cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSAD) and glutamate decarboxylase type I (GAD1), which are the key enzymes affecting the synthesis reactions, were decreased in aging rats compared with the controls. After licorice administration, the levels of taurine, CDO1 and CSAD were all significantly increased. These findings firstly demonstrated that the regulation of the taurine metabolic pathway is involved in the anti-aging effect of licorice in d-gal induced aging rats.

MeSH Terms

  • Aging
  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Antioxidants
  • Biomarkers
  • Carboxy-Lyases
  • China
  • Cysteine Dioxygenase
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Galactose
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase
  • Glycyrrhiza uralensis
  • Male
  • Metabolomics
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Plant Extracts
  • Plant Roots
  • Plant Stems
  • Principal Component Analysis
  • Random Allocation
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Taurine

Sulfur amino acid metabolism in the developing rhesus monkey brain: subcellular studies of taurine, cysteinesulfinic acid decarboxylase, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and glutamic acid decarboxylase.

Taurine, cysteinesulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSAD), glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) were measured in subcellular fractions prepared from occipital lobe of fetal and neonatal rhesus monkeys. In addition, the distribution of [35S]taurine in subcellular fractions was determined after administration to the fetus via the mother, to the neonate via administration to the mother prior to birth, and directly to the neonate at various times after birth. CSAD, glutamate, GABA, and GAD all were found to be low or unmeasurable in early fetal life and to increase during late fetal and early neonatal life to reach values found in the mother. Taurine was present in large amounts in early fetal life and decreased slowly during neonatal life, arriving at amounts found in the mother not until after 150 days of age. Significant amounts of taurine, CSAD, GABA, and GAD were associated with nerve ending components with some indication that the proportion of brain taurine found in these organelles increases during development. All subcellular pools of taurine were rapidly labeled by exogenously administered [35S]taurine. The subcellular distribution of all the components measured was compatible with the neurotransmitter or putative neurotransmitter functions of glutamate, GABA, and taurine. The large amount of these three amino acids exceeds that required for such function. The excess of glutamate and GABA may be used as a source of energy. The function of the excess of taurine is still not clear, although circumstantial evidence favors an important role in the development and maturation of the CNS.

MeSH Terms

  • Aging
  • Animals
  • Animals, Newborn
  • Brain
  • Carboxy-Lyases
  • Female
  • Fetus
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase
  • Macaca mulatta
  • Pregnancy
  • Subcellular Fractions
  • Taurine
  • gamma-Aminobutyric Acid

Development of taurine metabolism in beagle pups: effects of taurine-free total parenteral nutrition.

In beagle pups (from 5 to 84 days of age), plasma taurine concentration decreased between 5 and 21 days of age with no change thereafer; cerebral taurine concentration decreased throughout the period of study but cerebral taurine content increased between 5 and 21 days of age; hepatic taurine content (but not concentration) increased throughout. Both hepatic cysteinesulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSAD) activity and the concentration of taurine-conjugated bile acid of gallbladder bile increased during the period of study. Plasma and cerebral taurine pools were not affected by taurine-free total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Hepatic taurine content was also not affected, but taurine concentration decreased; however, this change resulted from an increase in hepatic size. Hepatic CSAD activity of animals that received TPN was greater than that of 35-day control animals while the concentration of taurine-conjugated bile acids in the gallbladder bile was less. Although plasma taurine concentration was not affected by intravenous glucose therapy, both the hepatic taurine concentration and content of these animals were less than those of 35-day control animals. Cerebral taurine concentration of these animals, on the other hand, were greater. Hepatic CSAD activity of the animals that received only intravenous glucose was similar to that of controls, but the taurine-conjugated bile acid concentration in the gallbladder bile, like that of animals that received TPN, was less than that observed in 35-day control animals.

MeSH Terms

  • Aging
  • Animals
  • Animals, Newborn
  • Brain
  • Dogs
  • Glucose
  • Liver
  • Parenteral Nutrition
  • Parenteral Nutrition, Total
  • Taurine

Combined segment arterial disease.

CSAD provides a challenge for the vascular surgeon. Patients are older, sicker, and at greater risk than are patients with unisegmental disease. Similarly, symptoms are more severe and limb loss is more frequent. A multitude of different reconstructive techniques are available, but their injudicious or untimely use can not only fail to improve the patient but can also cause limb loss or death. Their use must be predicated by a differentiation of which arterial segments are hemodynamically involved, yet this determination may not be possible even after extensive noninvasive and invasive investigation. To optimize the approach to these patients, the following principles should be employed. First, incapacitating claudication is a valid indication for a suprainguinal inflow procedure in a good-risk patient. However, indications for surgery should usually be limited to limb salvage, especially if an infrainguinal procedure is contemplated. Medical conditions such as heart failure and diabetes should be improved before arteriography. The latter should delineate the entire infrarenal arterial system, with special attention to the iliac, deep femoral, and pedal arteries. Oblique views may be of critical importance. Noninvasive hemodynamic tests should be used to confirm the need for arterial reconstruction and help delineate areas of functional stenosis. Direct pull-through pressure measurements may be required for ultimate confirmation. If proximal disease is thus defined, as proximal inflow operation should usually be sufficient unless there is extensive gangrene of the foot, in which case synchronous distal grafts may be required. If the proximal graft alone is performed, the patient must be followed closely since approximately 10% of patients may need subsequent distal reconstructions. The role of the "runoff" segments such as the deep femoral artery, popliteal trifurcation, and pedal arteries may be critical. Every effort should be made to ensure flow through these vessels. Profundoplasty alone is seldom indicated but is often a valuable adjunct to other reconstructive procedures. Lumbar sympathectomy is seldom required. PTA is becoming a valuable adjunct to treatment of CSAD, and intraoperative dilatation also has potential attributes. If such an approach is followed, lasting limb salvage with minimal morbidity should be achieved in most patients with CSAD.

MeSH Terms

  • Aging
  • Amputation
  • Angioplasty, Balloon
  • Aorta
  • Arteriosclerosis
  • Blood Vessel Prosthesis
  • Coronary Disease
  • Diabetes Complications
  • Endarterectomy
  • Femoral Artery
  • Humans
  • Iliac Artery
  • Intermittent Claudication
  • Leg
  • Middle Aged
  • Popliteal Artery
  • Prognosis
  • Sympathectomy