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Carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 1, brain isoform (EC (CPT1-B) (CPT IC) (Carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase I, brain isoform) (CPTI-B) (Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C) [CATL1]


Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C reverses cellular senescence of MRC-5 fibroblasts via regulating lipid accumulation and mitochondrial function.

Cellular senescence, a state of growth arrest, is involved in various age-related diseases. We previously found that carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C (CPT1C) is a key regulator of cancer cell proliferation and senescence, but it is unclear whether CPT1C plays a similar role in normal cells. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the role of CPT1C in cellular proliferation and senescence of human embryonic lung MRC-5 fibroblasts and the involved mechanisms. The results showed that CPT1C could reverse the cellular senescence of MRC-5 fibroblasts, as evidenced by reduced senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, downregulated messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of senescence-associated secretory phenotype factors, and enhanced bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Lipidomics analysis further revealed that CPT1C gain-of-function reduced lipid accumulation and reversed abnormal metabolic reprogramming of lipids in late MRC-5 cells. Oil Red O staining and Nile red fluorescence also indicated significant reduction of lipid accumulation after CPT1C gain-of-function. Consequently, CPT1C gain-of-function significantly reversed mitochondrial dysfunction, as evaluated by increased adenosine triphosphate synthesis and mitochondrial transmembrane potential, decreased radical oxygen species, upregulated respiratory capacity and mRNA expression of genes related to mitochondrial function. In summary, CPT1C plays a vital role in MRC-5 cellular proliferation and can reverse MRC-5 cellular senescence through the regulation of lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function, which supports the role of CPT1C as a novel target for intervention into cellular proliferation and senescence and suggests CPT1C as a new strategy for antiaging.


  • MRC-5 fibroblasts
  • carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C (CPT1C)
  • cellular senescence
  • lipidomics
  • mitochondrial function

Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C contributes to progressive cellular senescence.

Stable transfection manipulation with antibiotic selection and passaging induces progressive cellular senescence phenotypes. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study demonstrated that stable transfection of the empty vector induced PANC-1 cells into cellular senescence. Metabolomics revealed several acylcarnitines and their upstream regulatory gene, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C (CPT1C) involved in fatty acid β-oxidation in mitochondria, were strikingly decreased in senescent PANC-1 cells. Low CPT1C expression triggered mitochondrial dysfunction, inhibited telomere elongation, impaired cell survival under metabolic stress, and hindered the malignance and tumorigenesis of senescent cells. On the contrary, mitochondrial activity was restored by CPT1C gain-of-function in senescent vector PANC-1 cells. PPARα and TP53/CDKN1A, crucial signaling components in cellular senescence, were downregulated in senescent PANC-1 cells. This study identifies CPT1C as a key regulator of stable transfection-induced progressive PANC-1 cell senescence that inhibits mitochondrial function-associated metabolic reprogramming. These findings confirm the need to identify cell culture alterations after stable transfection, particularly when cells are used for metabolomics and mitochondria-associated studies, and suggest inhibition of CPT1C could be a promising target to intervene pancreatic tumorigenesis.


  • carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C
  • metabolic reprogramming
  • mitochondria
  • senescence
  • stable transfection

Effects of carnitine palmitoyltransferases on cancer cellular senescence.

The carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) family is essential for fatty acid oxidation. Recently, we found that CPT1C, one of the CPT1 isoforms, plays a vital role in cancer cellular senescence. However, it is unclear whether other isoforms (CPT1A, CPT1B, and CPT2) have the same effect on cellular senescence. This study illustrates the different effects of CPT knockdown on PANC-1 cell proliferation and senescence and MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation and senescence, as demonstrated by cell cycle kinetics, Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, colony formation, and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of key senescence-associated secretory phenotype factors. CPT1C exhibits the most substantial effect on cell senescence. Lipidomics analysis was performed to further reveal that the knockdown of CPTs changed the contents of lipids involved in mitochondrial function, and lipid accumulation was induced. Moreover, the different effects of the isoform deficiencies on mitochondrial function were measured and compared by the level of radical oxygen species, mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and the respiratory capacity, and the expression of the genes involved in mitochondrial function were determined at the mRNA level. In summary, CPT1C exerts the most significant effect on mitochondrial dysfunction-associated tumor cellular senescence among the members of the CPT family, which further supports the crucial role of CPT1C in cellular senescence and suggests that inhibition of CPT1C may represent as a new strategy for cancer treatment through the induction of tumor senescence.

MeSH Terms

  • Breast Neoplasms
  • Carnitine O-Palmitoyltransferase
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Cellular Senescence
  • Energy Metabolism
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • Humans
  • Lipid Metabolism
  • Mitochondria
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc
  • Signal Transduction


  • carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)
  • cellular senescence
  • lipidomics
  • mitochondrial function