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Choline O-acetyltransferase (EC (CHOACTase) (ChAT) (Choline acetylase)


Aging-relevant human basal forebrain cholinergic neurons as a cell model for Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an adult-onset mental disorder with aging as a major risk factor. Early and progressive degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) contributes substantially to cognitive impairments of AD. An aging-relevant cell model of BFCNs will critically help understand AD and identify potential therapeutics. Recent studies demonstrate that induced neurons directly reprogrammed from adult human skin fibroblasts retain aging-associated features. However, human induced BFCNs (hiBFCNs) have yet to be achieved. We examined a reprogramming procedure for the generation of aging-relevant hiBFCNs through virus-mediated expression of fate-determining transcription factors. Skin fibroblasts were obtained from healthy young persons, healthy adults and sporadic AD patients. Properties of the induced neurons were examined by immunocytochemistry, qRT-PCR, western blotting, and electrophysiology. We established a protocol for efficient generation of hiBFCNs from adult human skin fibroblasts. They show electrophysiological properties of mature neurons and express BFCN-specific markers, such as CHAT, p75NTR, ISL1, and VACHT. As a proof-of-concept, our preliminary results further reveal that hiBFCNs from sporadic AD patients exhibit time-dependent TAU hyperphosphorylation in the soma and dysfunctional nucleocytoplasmic transport activities. Aging-relevant BFCNs can be directly reprogrammed from human skin fibroblasts of healthy adults and sporadic AD patients. They show promises as an aging-relevant cell model for understanding AD pathology and may be employed for therapeutics identification for AD.


  • Aging
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • BFCNs
  • Fibroblasts
  • Nucleocytoplasmic transport
  • Reprogramming
  • TAU hyperphosphorylation

Satisfaction and Technology Evaluation of a Telehealth Robotic Program to Optimize Healthy Independent Living for Older Adults.

With the growth in the aging population, and shortage of primary care providers, telehealth programs are needed to optimize healthy independent living for older adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a nurse-led intervention program delivered through a telepresence robot to promote healthy lifestyles and address chronic illness management among older adults living independently in a retirement community. Telepresence robots provide two-way video-mediated communication with remote in-home navigation. Satisfaction and technology evaluation ratings of the Telehealth Community Health Assistance Team (T-CHAT) program, as well as qualitative data from open-ended questions, were obtained from 26 older adults and 7 nurse practitioner students. On a scale from 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree, satisfaction ratings were positive for usefulness (M = 3.90), ease of use (M = 4.16), and acceptability (M = 4.06). Technology evaluation ratings were high for all sessions (M = 4.35). Older adults and nurse practitioner students were highly complementary of the program. Areas for improvement were identified. The T-CHAT program demonstrated high ratings for satisfaction (usefulness, ease of use, acceptability) and for evaluation of the telepresence robot technology. Further refinement of the T-CHAT program is warranted, as is testing outcomes of this potentially viable mode of healthcare delivery. Robotics is the wave of the future and provides an innovative mode of delivery to address health promotion and chronic illness management in older adults. Satisfaction and technology evaluation of robotic technology is paramount prior to implementation of such programs into practice.

MeSH Terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Chronic Disease
  • Female
  • Health Promotion
  • Humans
  • Independent Living
  • Male
  • Nursing Evaluation Research
  • Personal Satisfaction
  • Robotics
  • Telemedicine


  • Chronic illness
  • geriatrics
  • health promotion
  • nursing
  • robots
  • telehealth

Reliability of the Language ENvironment Analysis system (LENA™) in European French.

In this study, we examined the accuracy of the Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA) system in European French. LENA is a digital recording device with software that facilitates the collection and analysis of audio recordings from young children, providing automated measures of the speech overheard and produced by the child. Eighteen native French-speaking children, who were divided into six age groups ranging from 3 to 48 months old, were recorded about 10-16 h per day, three days a week. A total of 324 samples (six 10-min chunks of recordings) were selected and then transcribed according to the CHAT format. Simple and mixed linear models between the LENA and human adult word count (AWC) and child vocalization count (CVC) estimates were performed, to determine to what extent the automatic and the human methods agreed. Both the AWC and CVC estimates were very reliable (r = .64 and .71, respectively) for the 324 samples. When controlling the random factors of participants and recordings, 1 h was sufficient to obtain a reliable sample. It was, however, found that two age groups (7-12 months and 13-18 months) had a significant effect on the AWC data and that the second day of recording had a significant effect on the CVC data. When noise-related factors were added to the model, only a significant effect of signal-to-noise ratio was found on the AWC data. All of these findings and their clinical implications are discussed, providing strong support for the reliability of LENA in French.

MeSH Terms

  • Adult
  • Aging
  • Child, Preschool
  • Data Collection
  • Environment
  • Female
  • France
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Language
  • Linear Models
  • Male
  • Signal-To-Noise Ratio
  • Software
  • Speech
  • Vocabulary


  • Adult word count
  • Automatic speech recognition technology
  • Child vocalization count
  • European French
  • Human transcriber
  • Reliability
  • Signal-to-noise ratio

{{medline-entry |title=Age-related gene expression analysis in enteric ganglia of human colon after laser microdissection. |pubmed-url= |abstract=The enteric nervous system (ENS) poses the intrinsic innervation of the gastrointestinal tract and plays a critical role for all stages of postnatal life. There is increasing scientific and clinical interest in acquired or age-related gastrointestinal dysfunctions that can be manifested in diseases such as gut constipation or fecal incontinence. In this study, we sought to analyze age-dependent changes in the gene expression profile of the human ENS, particularly in the myenteric plexus. Therefore, we used the laser microdissection technique which has been proven as a feasible tool to analyze distinct cell populations within heterogeneously composed tissues. Full biopsy gut samples were prepared from children (4-12 months), middle aged (48-58 years) and aged donors (70-95 years). Cryosections were histologically stained with H