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Cell division control protein 6 homolog (CDC6-related protein) (Cdc18-related protein) (HsCdc18) (p62(cdc6)) (HsCDC6) [CDC18L]


A prototypical non-malignant epithelial model to study genome dynamics and concurrently monitor micro-RNAs and proteins in situ during oncogene-induced senescence.

Senescence is a fundamental biological process implicated in various pathologies, including cancer. Regarding carcinogenesis, senescence signifies, at least in its initial phases, an anti-tumor response that needs to be circumvented for cancer to progress. Micro-RNAs, a subclass of regulatory, non-coding RNAs, participate in senescence regulation. At the subcellular level micro-RNAs, similar to proteins, have been shown to traffic between organelles influencing cellular behavior. The differential function of micro-RNAs relative to their subcellular localization and their role in senescence biology raises concurrent in situ analysis of coding and non-coding gene products in senescent cells as a necessity. However, technical challenges have rendered in situ co-detection unfeasible until now. In the present report we describe a methodology that bypasses these technical limitations achieving for the first time simultaneous detection of both a micro-RNA and a protein in the biological context of cellular senescence, utilizing the new commercially available SenTraGor compound. The method was applied in a prototypical human non-malignant epithelial model of oncogene-induced senescence that we generated for the purposes of the study. For the characterization of this novel system, we applied a wide range of cellular and molecular techniques, as well as high-throughput analysis of the transcriptome and micro-RNAs. This experimental setting has three advantages that are presented and discussed: i) it covers a "gap" in the molecular carcinogenesis field, as almost all corresponding in vitro models are fibroblast-based, even though the majority of neoplasms have epithelial origin, ii) it recapitulates the precancerous and cancerous phases of epithelial tumorigenesis within a short time frame under the light of natural selection and iii) it uses as an oncogenic signal, the replication licensing factor CDC6, implicated in both DNA replication and transcription when over-expressed, a characteristic that can be exploited to monitor RNA dynamics. Consequently, we demonstrate that our model is optimal for studying the molecular basis of epithelial carcinogenesis shedding light on the tumor-initiating events. The latter may reveal novel molecular targets with clinical benefit. Besides, since this method can be incorporated in a wide range of low, medium or high-throughput image-based approaches, we expect it to be broadly applicable.

MeSH Terms

  • Carcinogenesis
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Cellular Senescence
  • Epithelial Cells
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Genome
  • Humans
  • MicroRNAs
  • Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Oncogenes
  • Proteins


  • CDC6
  • Cancer
  • DNA damage response
  • In situ hybridization
  • Micro-RNAs
  • Oncogene-induced senescence
  • R loops
  • Replication stress
  • SenTraGorTM
  • rDNA

ARF-induced downregulation of Mip130/LIN-9 protein levels mediates a positive feedback that leads to increased expression of p16Ink4a and p19Arf.

The ARF-MDM2-p53 pathway constitutes one of the most important mechanisms of surveillance against oncogenic transformation, and its inactivation occurs in a large proportion of cancers. Here, we show that ARF regulates Mip130/LIN-9 by inducing its translocation to the nucleolus and decreasing the expression of the Mip130/LIN-9 protein through a post-transcriptional mechanism. The knockdown of Mip130/LIN-9 in p53(-/-) and Arf(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) mimics some effects of ARF, such as the downregulation of B-Myb, impaired induction of G2/M genes, and a decrease in cell proliferation. Importantly, although the knockdown of Mip130/LIN-9 reduced the proliferation of p53 or Arf-null MEFs, only p53(-/-) MEFs showed a senescence-like state and an increase in the expression of Arf and p16. Interestingly, the increase in p16 and ARF is indirect because the Mip130/LIN-9 knockdown decreased the transcription of negative regulators of the Ink4a/Arf locus, such as BUBR1 and CDC6. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays also reveal that Mip130/LIN-9 occupies the promoters of the BubR1 and cdc6 genes, suggesting that Mip130/LIN-9 is necessary for the expression of these genes. Altogether, these results indicate that there is a feedback mechanism between ARF and Mip130/LIN-9 in which either the increase of ARF or the decrease in Mip130/LIN-9 causes a further increase in the expression of Arf and p16.

MeSH Terms

  • Aging
  • Animals
  • Cell Line, Transformed
  • Cell Transformation, Neoplastic
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
  • Down-Regulation
  • Fibroblasts
  • Genes, p53
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout
  • NIH 3T3 Cells
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins