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CD82 antigen (C33 antigen) (IA4) (Inducible membrane protein R2) (Metastasis suppressor Kangai-1) (Suppressor of tumorigenicity 6 protein) (Tetraspanin-27) (Tspan-27) [KAI1] [SAR2] [ST6] [TSPAN27]


Cell-surface phenotyping identifies CD36 and CD97 as novel markers of fibroblast quiescence in lung fibrosis.

Fibroblasts play an important role in lung homeostasis and disease. In lung fibrosis, fibroblasts adopt a proliferative and migratory phenotype, with increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) and enhanced secretion of extracellular matrix components. Comprehensive profiling of fibroblast heterogeneity is limited because of a lack of specific cell-surface markers. We have previously profiled the surface proteome of primary human lung fibroblasts. Here, we sought to define and quantify a panel of cluster of differentiation (CD) markers in primary human lung fibroblasts and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) lung tissue, using immunofluorescence and FACS analysis. Fibroblast function was assessed by analysis of replicative senescence. We observed the presence of distinct fibroblast phenotypes in vivo, characterized by various combinations of Desmin, αSMA, CD36, or CD97 expression. Most markers demonstrated stable expression over passages in vitro, but significant changes were observed for CD36, CD54, CD82, CD106, and CD140a. Replicative senescence of fibroblasts was observed from passage 10 onward. CD36- and CD97-positive but αSMA-negative cells were present in remodeled areas of IPF lungs. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β treatment induced αSMA and collagen I expression but repressed CD36 and CD97 expression. We identified a panel of stable surface markers in human lung fibroblasts, applicable for positive-cell isolation directly from lung tissue. TGF-β exposure represses CD36 and CD97 expression, despite increasing αSMA expression; we therefore identified complex surface protein changes during fibroblast-myofibroblast activation. Coexistence of quiescence and activated fibroblast subtypes in the IPF lung suggests dynamic remodeling of fibroblast activation upon subtle changes to growth factor exposure in local microenvironmental niches.

MeSH Terms

  • Antigens, CD
  • Biomarkers
  • CD36 Antigens
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Cellular Senescence
  • Female
  • Fibroblasts
  • Humans
  • Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
  • Lung
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled
  • Signal Transduction


  • FACS
  • IPF
  • cell culture
  • mesenchymal marker
  • replicative senescence
  • surface marker