CD209 antigen (C-type lectin domain family 4 member L) (Dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing non-integrin 1) (DC-SIGN) (DC-SIGN1) [CLEC4L]
Aging and chronic condition increase the incidence of dengue virus (DENV) infection, generally through a mechanism involving immunosenescence; however, the alternative effects of cellular senescence, which alters cell susceptibility to viral infection, remain unknown. Human monocytic THP-1 cells (ATCC TIB-202) treated with D-galactose to induce cellular senescence were susceptible to DENV infection. These senescent cells showed increased viral entry/binding, gene/protein expression, and dsRNA replication. The use of a replicon system showed that pharmacologically induced senescence did not enhance the effects on viral protein translation. By examining viral receptor expression, we found increased expression of CD209 (DC-SIGN) in the senescent cells. Interleukin (IL)-10 was aberrantly produced at high levels by the senescent cells, and the expression of the DENV receptor DC-SIGN was increased in these senescent cells, partially via IL-10-mediated regulation of the JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathway. The results demonstrate that a senescent phenotype facilitates DENV infection, probably by increasing DC-SIGN expression.
- dengue virus
Host-bacterial interactions at mucosal surfaces require recognition of the bacteria by host cells enabling targeted responses to maintain tissue homeostasis. It is now well recognized that an array of host-derived pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), both cell-bound and soluble, are critical to innate immune engagement of microbes via microbial-associated molecular patterns (MAMP). This report describes the use of a nonhuman primate model to evaluate changes in the expression of these sensing molecules related to aging in healthy gingival tissues. Macaca mulatta aged 3-24 years were evaluated clinically and gingival tissues obtained, RNA isolated and microarray analysis conducted for gene expression of the sensing pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). The results demonstrated increased expression of various PRRs in healthy aging gingiva including extracellular (CD14, CD209, CLEC4E, TLR4), intracellular (NAIP, IFIH1, DAI) and soluble (PTX4, SAA1) PRRs. Selected PRRs were also correlated with both bleeding on probing (BOP) and pocket depth (PD) in the animals. These findings suggest that aged animals express altered levels of various PRRs that could affect the ability of the tissues to interact effectively with the juxtaposed microbial ecology, presumably contributing to an enhanced risk of periodontitis even in clinically healthy oral mucosal tissues with aging.
- Host-Pathogen Interactions
- Macaca mulatta
- Microarray Analysis
- Models, Animal
- Mouth Mucosa
- Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules
- Receptors, Pattern Recognition
- Microbial sensing
- Nonhuman primates
- Oral mucosa
- Pattern recognition receptors
The present study was undertaken to identify dendritic cells (DCs) in the ileum and rectum of lambs and adult sheep. The distribution of these cells in four different intestinal compartments, i.e. lamina propria, lymphoid follicles, domes and interfollicular areas was assessed, and the presence of these cells in lambs and adult sheep was compared. Specimens were examined by using a number of potential DC markers (CD11c, CD205, MHC class II (MHCII), CD1b and CD209) in immunohistochemical and multicolour immunofluorescent procedures. The ovine ileal and rectal mucosa contain many CD11c /CD205 cells with a dendritic morphology, and the majority of these cells co-expressed MHCII. These double-positive cells were also labelled with the CD209 antibody in the lamina propria and interfollicular regions. Only very few cells expressed CD1b. In conclusion, a major DC population in ileum and rectum of sheep co-expressed the CD11c, CD205 and MHCII molecules. The CD209 antibody appeared to be a novel marker for a subpopulation of ovine intestinal DCs.
- Antigens, CD
- Dendritic Cells
- Intestinal Mucosa
- Lymph Nodes