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CCN family member 4 precursor (WNT1-inducible-signaling pathway protein 1) (WISP-1) (Wnt-1-induced secreted protein) [WISP1]


CCN proteins as potential actionable targets in scleroderma.

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a complex autoimmune connective tissue disease combining inflammatory, vasculopathic and fibrotic manifestations. Skin features, which give their name to the disease and are considered as diagnostic as well as prognostic markers, have not been thoroughly investigated in terms of therapeutic targets. CCN proteins (CYR61/CCN1, CTGF/CCN2, NOV/CCN3 and WISP1-2-3 as CCN4-5-6) are a family of secreted matricellular proteins implicated in major cellular processes such as cell growth, migration, differentiation. They have already been implicated in key pathophysiological processes of SSc, namely fibrosis, vasculopathy and inflammation. In this review, we discuss the possible implication of CCN proteins in SSc pathogenesis, with a special focus on skin features, and identify the potential actionable CCN targets.

MeSH Terms

  • Aging
  • Animals
  • Autoimmunity
  • CCN Intercellular Signaling Proteins
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Dermatitis
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Fibrosis
  • Humans
  • Neovascularization, Pathologic
  • Scleroderma, Systemic
  • Skin
  • Skin Pigmentation


  • CCN proteins
  • angiogenesis
  • fibrosis
  • pigmentation
  • skin