Beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 (EC 2.4.1.-) (Beta-1,4-GalTase 1) (Beta4Gal-T1) (b4Gal-T1) (Beta-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycolipid beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase) (Beta-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase) (EC 220.127.116.11) (Lactose synthase A protein) (EC 18.104.22.168) (N-acetyllactosamine synthase) (EC 22.214.171.124) (Nal synthase) (Neolactotriaosylceramide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase) (EC 126.96.36.1995) (UDP-Gal:beta-GlcNAc beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1) (UDP-galactose:beta-N-acetylglucosamine beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1) [Contains: Processed beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1] [GGTB2]
Altered plasma activity of β-1,4-galac-tosyl-transferases (B4GALTs) is a novel candidate biomarker of human aging. B4GALT1 is assumed to be largely responsible for this activity increase, but how it modulates the aging process is unclear at present. To determine how expression of B4GALT1 and other B4GALT enzymes changes during aging of an experimentally tractable model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans. Targeted analysis of mRNA levels of all 3 C. elegans B4GALT family members was performed by qPCR in wild-type and in long-lived daf-2 (insulin/IGF1-like receptor)-deficient or germline-deficient animals. bre-4 (B4GALT1/2/3/4) is the only B4GALT whose expression increases during aging in wild-type worms. In addition, bre-4 levels also rise during aging in long-lived daf-2-deficient worms, but not in animals that are long-lived due to the lack of germline stem cells. On the other hand, expression of sqv-3 (B4GALT7) and of W02B12.11 (B4GALT5/6) appears decreased or constant, respectively, in all backgrounds during aging. The age-dependent bre-4 mRNA increase in C. elegans parallels the age-dependent B4GALT activity increase in humans and is consistent with C. elegans being a suitable experimental organism to define potentially conserved roles of B4GALT1 during aging.
- Lifespan regulation
Glycosylation is one of the most frequent post-translational modification of proteins. Many membrane and secreted proteins are decorated by sugar chains mainly linked to asparagine (N-linked) or to serine or threonine (O-linked). The biosynthesis of the sugar chains is mainly controlled by the activity of their biosynthetic enzymes: the glycosyltransferases. Glycosylation plays multiple roles, including the fine regulation of the biological activity of glycoproteins. Inflammaging is a chronic low grade inflammatory status associated with aging, probably caused by the continuous exposure of the immune system to inflammatory stimuli of endogenous and exogenous origin. The aging-associated glycosylation changes often resemble those observed in inflammatory conditions. One of the most reproducible markers of calendar and biological aging is the presence of N-glycans lacking terminal galactose residues linked to Asn of IgG heavy chains (IgG-G0). Although the mechanism(s) generating IgG-G0 remain unclear, their presence in a variety of inflammatory conditions suggests a link with inflammaging. In addition, these aberrantly glycosylated IgG can exert a pro-inflammatory effect through different mechanisms, triggering a self-fueling inflammatory loop. A strong association with aging has been documented also for the plasmatic forms of glycosyltrasferases B4GALT1 and ST6GAL1, although their role in the extracellular glycosylation of antibodies does not appear likely. Siglecs, are a group of sialic acid binding mammalian lectins which mainly act as inhibitory receptors on the surface of immune cells. In general activity of Siglecs appears to be associated with long life, probably because of their ability to restrain aging-associated inflammation.
- Glycosylation in aging
- Hypogalactosylated antibodies
- Plasmatic glycosyltransferases