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Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-2 precursor (EC (Na( )/K( ) ATPase alpha-2 subunit) (Sodium pump subunit alpha-2) [KIAA0778]


SerThr-PhosphoProteome of Brain from Aged PINK1-KO A53T-SNCA Mice Reveals pT1928-MAP1B and pS3781-ANK2 Deficits, as Hub between Autophagy and Synapse Changes.

Hereditary Parkinson's disease (PD) can be triggered by an autosomal dominant overdose of alpha-Synuclein (SNCA) as stressor or the autosomal recessive deficiency of PINK1 Serine/Threonine-phosphorylation activity as stress-response. We demonstrated the combination of PINK1-knockout with overexpression of SNCA in double mutant (DM) mice to exacerbate locomotor deficits and to reduce lifespan. To survey posttranslational modifications of proteins underlying the pathology, brain hemispheres of old DM mice underwent quantitative label-free global proteomic mass spectrometry, focused on Ser/Thr-phosphorylations. As an exceptionally strong effect, we detected >300-fold reductions of phosphoThr1928 in MAP1B, a microtubule-associated protein, and a similar reduction of phosphoSer3781 in ANK2, an interactor of microtubules. MAP1B depletion is known to trigger perturbations of microtubular mitochondria trafficking, neurite extension, and synaptic function, so it was noteworthy that relevantly decreased phosphorylation was also detected for other microtubule and microfilament factors, namely MAP2 , MARK1 , MAP1A , KIF1A , 4.1N , 4.1G , and ADD2 . While the MAP1B heavy chain supports regeneration and growth cones, its light chain assists DAPK1-mediated autophagy. Interestingly, relevant phosphorylation decreases of DAPK2 , VPS13D , and VPS13C in the DM brain affected regulators of autophagy, which are implicated in PD. Overall, significant downregulations were enriched for PFAM C2 domains, other kinases, and synaptic transmission factors upon automated bioinformatics, while upregulations were not enriched for selective motifs or pathways. Validation experiments confirmed the change of LC3 processing as reflection of excessive autophagy in DM brain, and dependence of ANK2/MAP1B expression on PINK1 levels. Our new data provide independent confirmation in a mouse model with combined PARK1/PARK4/PARK6 pathology that MAP1B/ANK2 phosphorylation events are implicated in Parkinsonian neurodegeneration. These findings expand on previous observations in [i]Drosophila melanogaster[/i] that the MAP1B ortholog futsch in the presynapse is a primary target of the PARK8 protein LRRK2, and on a report that MAP1B is a component of the pathological Lewy body aggregates in PD patient brains. Similarly, [i]ANK2[/i] gene locus variants are associated with the risk of PD, ANK2 interacts with PINK1/Parkin-target proteins such as MIRO1 or ATP1A2, and ANK2-derived peptides are potent inhibitors of autophagy.

MeSH Terms

  • Aging
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Ankyrins
  • Autophagy
  • Brain
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Mice, Mutant Strains
  • Microtubule-Associated Proteins
  • Microtubules
  • Phosphoproteins
  • Phosphorylation
  • Phosphoserine
  • Phosphothreonine
  • Protein Domains
  • Protein Kinases
  • Proteome
  • Synapses
  • alpha-Synuclein


  • PINK1
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • alpha-synuclein
  • autophagy
  • brain phosphorylome
  • microtubular cytoskeleton
  • synaptic signaling

The Influence of Na( ), K( )-ATPase on Glutamate Signaling in Neurodegenerative Diseases and Senescence.

Decreased Na( ), K( )-ATPase (NKA) activity causes energy deficiency, which is commonly observed in neurodegenerative diseases. The NKA is constituted of three subunits: α, β, and γ, with four distinct isoforms of the catalytic α subunit (α1-4). Genetic mutations in the ATP1A2 gene and ATP1A3 gene, encoding the α2 and α3 subunit isoforms, respectively can cause distinct neurological disorders, concurrent to impaired NKA activity. Within the central nervous system (CNS), the α2 isoform is expressed mostly in glial cells and the α3 isoform is neuron-specific. Mutations in ATP1A2 gene can result in familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM2), while mutations in the ATP1A3 gene can cause Rapid-onset dystonia-Parkinsonism (RDP) and alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC), as well as the cerebellar ataxia, areflexia, pescavus, optic atrophy and sensorineural hearing loss (CAPOS) syndrome. Data indicates that the central glutamatergic system is affected by mutations in the α2 isoform, however further investigations are required to establish a connection to mutations in the α3 isoform, especially given the diagnostic confusion and overlap with glutamate transporter disease. The age-related decline in brain α2∕3 activity may arise from changes in the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) pathway. Glutamate, through nitric oxide synthase (NOS), cGMP and PKG, stimulates brain α2∕3 activity, with the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor cascade able to drive an adaptive, neuroprotective response to inflammatory and challenging stimuli, including amyloid-β. Here we review the NKA, both as an ion pump as well as a receptor that interacts with NMDA, including the role of NKA subunits mutations. Failure of the NKA-associated adaptive response mechanisms may render neurons more susceptible to degeneration over the course of aging.


  • ATP1A2 and ATP1A3 mutations
  • K -ATPase
  • Na
  • aging
  • glutamate
  • neurodegenerative diseases

Novel mutations affecting the Na, K ATPase alpha model complex neurological diseases and implicate the sodium pump in increased longevity.

Mutations affecting the Na( ), K( ) ATPase alpha subunit have been implicated in at least two distinct human diseases, rapid-onset dystonia Parkinsonism (RDP), and familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM). Over 40 mutations have been mapped to the human ATP1A2 and ATP1A3 genes and are known to result in RDP, FHM or a variant of FHM with neurological complications. To develop a genetically tractable model system for investigating the role of the Na( ), K( ) ATPase in neural pathologies we performed genetic screens in Drosophila melanogaster to isolate loss-of-function alleles affecting the Na( ), K( ) ATPase alpha subunit. Flies heterozygous for these mutations all exhibit reduced respiration, consistent with a loss-of-function in the major ATPase. However, these mutations do not affect all functions of the Na( ), K( ) ATPase alpha protein since embryos homozygous for these mutations have normal septate junction paracellular barrier function and tracheal morphology. Importantly, all of these mutations cause neurological phenotypes and, akin to the mutations that cause RDP and FHM, these new alleles are missense mutations. All of these alleles exhibit progressive stress-induced locomotor impairment suggesting neuromuscular dysfunction, yet neurodegeneration is observed in an allele-specific manner. Surprisingly, studies of longevity demonstrate that mild hypomorphic mutations in the sodium pump significantly improve longevity, which was verified using the Na( ), K( ) ATPase antagonist ouabain. The isolation and characterization of a series of new missense alleles of ATPalpha in Drosophila provides the foundation for further studies of these neurological diseases and the role of sodium pump impairment in animal longevity.

MeSH Terms

  • Alleles
  • Animals
  • Behavior, Animal
  • Drosophila melanogaster
  • Heterozygote
  • Longevity
  • Models, Genetic
  • Mutation
  • Mutation, Missense
  • Nervous System Diseases
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase
  • Trachea