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Aldehyde oxidase (EC (Aldehyde oxidase 1) (Azaheterocycle hydroxylase) (EC 1.17.3.-) [AO]


N1-Methylnicotinamide: An Anti-Ovarian Aging Hormetin?

Ovarian aging occurs due to the reduction of the quality and quantity of the oocytes, and is regulated by mitochondrial survival and apoptotic signals. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are one of those signals considered detrimental to cellular homeostasis. Nowadays, ROS are regarded as a regulatory factor at low levels as it induces the stress resistance which in turn increases the longevity. It is believed that the main mechanism for the life-promoting role of the ROS mediated by the 5' Adenosine Monophosphate-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK). N1-Methylnicotinamide (MNAM) is well known for its anti-diabetic, anti-thrombotic, and anti-inflammatory activity. Aldehyde oxidase 1 (AOX1) is a detoxifying enzyme, which metabolizes the MNAM and produces two metabolites including N1-methyl-2-pyridone-5- carboxamide (2py) and N1-methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide (4py). The activity of AOX1 enhances the production of ROS and improves the longevity. It has been reported that the MNAM could postpone the aging through the induction of low-level stress. It has been documented that the production of MNAM is significantly higher in the cumulus cells of the patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and its administration on the rat model of PCOS has been shown to alleviate the hyperandrogenism and successfully activate the ovarian AMPK. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that the anti-ovarian aging effects of the MNAM are possibly based on the activation of AMPK through transient elevation of the ROS.


  • AMPK
  • MNAM
  • Ovarian Aging
  • ROS