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Allograft inflammatory factor 1 (AIF-1) (Ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1) (Protein G1) [G1] [IBA1]


Sirtuin 1-Chromatin-Binding Dynamics Points to a Common Mechanism Regulating Inflammatory Targets in SIV Infection and in the Aging Brain.

Microglia and macrophages are the main non-neuronal subsets of myeloid origin in the brain, and are critical regulators in neurodegenerative disorders, where inflammation is a key factor. Since HIV infection results in neurological perturbations that are similar to those in aging, we examined microglial and infiltrating myeloid subsets in the search for changes that might resemble the ones in aging. For that, we used the SIV infection in rhesus macaques to model neuroAIDS. We found that Sirt-1, a molecule that impacts survival and health in many models, was decreased in cell preparations containing a majority of microglia and myeloid cells from the brain of infected macaques. The role of Sirt-1 in neuroAIDS is unknown. We hypothesized that Sirt-1 silencing functions are affected by SIV. Mapping of Sirt-1 binding patterns to chromatin revealed that the number of Sirt-1-bound genes was 29.6% increased in myeloid cells from infected animals with mild or no detectable neuropathology, but 51% was decreased in severe neuropathology, compared to controls. Importantly, Sirt-1-bound genes in controls largely participate in neuroinflammation. Promoters of type I IFN pathway genes IRF7, IRF1, IFIT1, and AIF1, showed Sirt-1 binding in controls, which was consistently lost after infection, together with higher transcription. Loss of Sirt-1 binding was also found in brains from old uninfected animals, suggesting a common regulation. The role of Sirt-1 in regulating these inflammatory markers was confirmed in two different in vitro models, where Sirt-1 blockage modulated IRF7, IRF1 and AIF1 levels both in human macrophage cell lines and in human blood-derived monocytes from various normal donors, stimulated with a TLR9 agonist. Our data suggests that Sirt-1-inflammatory gene silencing is disturbed by SIV infection, resembling aging in brains. These findings may impact our knowledge on the contribution of myeloid subsets to the neurological consequences of HIV infection, aggravated and overlapping with the aging process.

MeSH Terms

  • AIDS Dementia Complex
  • Aging
  • Animals
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Chromatin
  • Humans
  • Inflammation
  • Macaca mulatta
  • Macrophages
  • Microglia
  • Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
  • Sirtuin 1


  • Aging
  • HIV
  • Microglia
  • Neuroinflammation
  • SIV
  • Sirtuin-1

ER stress in retinal degeneration in S334ter Rho rats.

The S334ter rhodopsin (Rho) rat (line 4) bears the rhodopsin gene with an early termination codon at residue 334 that is a model for several such mutations found in human patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP). The Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) is implicated in the pathophysiology of several retinal disorders including ADRP in P23H Rho rats. The aim of this study was to examine the onset of UPR gene expression in S334ter Rho retinas to determine if UPR is activated in ADRP animal models and to investigate how the activation of UPR molecules leads to the final demise of S334ter Rho photoreceptors. RT-PCR was performed to evaluate the gene expression profiles for the P10, P12, P15, and P21 stages of the development and progression of ADRP in S334ter Rho photoreceptors. We determined that during the P12-P15 period, ER stress-related genes are strongly upregulated in transgenic retinas, resulting in the activation of the UPR that was confirmed using western blot analysis and RT-PCR. The activation of UPR was associated with the increased expression of JNK, Bik, Bim, Bid, Noxa, and Puma genes and cleavage of caspase-12 that together with activated calpains presumably compromise the integrity of the mitochondrial MPTP, leading to the release of pro-apoptotic AIF1 into the cytosol of S334ter Rho photoreceptor cells. Therefore, two major cross-talking pathways, the UPR and mitochondrial MPTP occur in S334ter-4 Rho retina concomitantly and eventually promote the death of the photoreceptor cells.

MeSH Terms

  • Aging
  • Animals
  • Apoptosis
  • Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1
  • Autophagy
  • Biomarkers
  • Calpain
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation
  • Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
  • Eye Proteins
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Humans
  • JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Mitochondria
  • Mutation
  • Oxidative Stress
  • PTEN Phosphohydrolase
  • Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • Rats
  • Retina
  • Retinal Degeneration
  • Rhodopsin
  • Time Factors
  • Transcription Factors