Glycogen debranching enzyme (Glycogen debrancher) [Includes: 4-alpha-glucanotransferase (EC 188.8.131.52) (Oligo-1,4-1,4-glucantransferase); Amylo-alpha-1,6-glucosidase (EC 184.108.40.206) (Amylo-1,6-glucosidase) (Dextrin 6-alpha-D-glucosidase)] [GDE]
Intraocular lenses (IOLs) have been implanted in adult equine eyes after cataract surgery. Foals and weanlings comprise a large proportion of those horses undergoing cataract surgery. Due to potential differences in the size and corneal curvature of the juvenile eye, it is not currently known whether implantation of adult IOLs is appropriate in foals and weanlings. The objective of the study was to measure the anterior chamber depth (ACD), central lens thickness (CLT), vitreous chamber depth (VCD), axial globe length (AGL) and corneal curvature of horses less than one year of age. The axial dimensions from one eye of 10 foals were measured using simultaneous A and B scan ultrasonography. The corneal curvature from one eye of 7 weanlings was determined using a modified photokeratometer. Ultrasonography revealed a mean ACD of 4.94 mm, mean CLT of 9.38 mm, mean VCD of 18.96 mm and mean AGL of 33.32 mm for the foals. The mean corneal curvature was 15.4 diopters (D). The mean ACD, CLT, VCD and AGL of the foals were less than the measurements reported in the literature for adult horses. The mean corneal curvature was similar to the values reported by some authors for adult horses. Due to the differences in axial dimensions between adult and juvenile eyes, an IOL that corrects vision in an adult horse might not adequately correct vision in a horse less than one year of age.
- Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological
- Pilot Projects
Age-related decline in cognitive function has been linked to alterations of white matter and functional brain connectivity. With regard to language, aging has been shown to be associated with impaired syntax processing, but the underlying structural and functional correlates are poorly understood. In the present study, we used an artificial grammar learning (AGL) task to determine the ability to extract grammatical rules from new material in healthy older adults. White matter microstructure and resting-state functional connectivity (FC) of task-relevant brain regions were assessed using multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). AGL performance correlated positively with fractional anisotropy (FA) underlying left and right Brodmann areas (BA) 44/45 and in tracts originating from left BA 44/45. An inverse relationship was found between task performance and FC of left and right BA 44/45, linking lower performance to stronger inter-hemispheric functional coupling. Our results suggest that white matter microstructure underlying specific prefrontal regions and their functional coupling affect acquisition of syntactic knowledge in the aging brain, offering further insight into mechanisms of functional decline in older adults.
- Brain Mapping
- Diffusion Tensor Imaging
- Middle Aged
- Nerve Fibers, Myelinated
- Neural Pathways
The study was conducted to investigate the effect of adding multienzyme preparation (Rovabio Excel AP, Adisseo Asia Pacific Pte Ltd., Singapore) at 2 inclusion levels of sunflower meal (SFM; 20 and 30% of the diets) with 3 levels of digestible Lys (0.8, 0.9, and 1.0%) with and without enzyme in a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial arrangement. Each diet was offered to 4 replicates of 51 one-day-old straight-run Hubbard broiler chicks (n = 2448) in a practical vegetable-based mash diet having 2,750 kcal of ME/kg and 19% CP during 2 wk posthatching (1 to 14 d of age). Feed formulation was based on digestible amino acids, which were calculated from the CP and DM contents of each ingredient using AminoDat 2 (Degussa Corp., Allendale, NJ). The enzyme used in this study was authenticated by the supplier to have minimum level of endo-1,4-beta xylanase (22,000 visco units/g) and endo-1,3(4)-beta glucanase (2,000 AGL units/g) and was added at the rate of 50 mg/kg of finished diet. No significant effect of enzyme or level of SFM was observed on BW gain (BWG), feed intake, or mortality during the experimental period. The BWG and feed:gain for birds fed on 30% SFM with enzyme were comparable to those fed on 20% SFM without enzyme during 1 to 14 d of age. However, enzyme at 20% SFM depressed the BWG (P <or=0.006) and feed conversion ratio (P <or=0.027). A quadratic (P <or=0.036) response of digestible Lys was noted for BWG, whereas it was linear (P <or=0.001) for feed:gain during 1 to 7 and 1 to 14 d. A level of 1.0% digestible Lys was observed best for BWG and feed:gain. For BWG, 0.8 and 0.9% digestible Lys was comparable when it was used at 30% SFM, along with enzyme. In conclusion, enzyme supplementation during 2 wk posthatching has no remarkable effect when used in SFM-based diets. Moreover, digestible Lys may be lowered to 0.8% during the first week but not less than 1.0% during the second week post-hatching.
- Animal Feed
- Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
- Multienzyme Complexes
To determine corneal thickness, intraocular pressure (IOP), and horizontal and vertical corneal diameter (HCD and VCD) and to obtain axial measurements of the anterior chamber depth (ACD), crystalline lens thickness (CLT), vitreous chamber depth (VtCD), and axial globe length (AGL) in eyes of Miniature Horses. 41 healthy Miniature Horses. Ocular component measurements were obtained via ultrasonic pachymetry, applanation tonometry, ultrasound, and by use of a Jameson caliper. Mean IOP and corneal thickness for all eyes were 26.0 mm Hg and 785.6 microm, respectively. There was no correlation of age with IOP or corneal thickness and no difference in these variables between right and left eyes or between females and males. Mean HCD andVCD were 25.8 and 19.4 mm, respectively; although there were no differences between sexes or between right and left eyes, there was positive correlation of optical corneal diameters with increasing age. Mean ACD, CLT, VtCD, and AGL were smaller in Miniature Horses (5.6, 10.0, 18.1, and 33.7 mm, respectively), compared with values for full-sized horses; there was no difference in these variables between sexes or between right and left eyes in Miniature Horses, but they were correlated with increasing age. In Miniature Horses, corneal thickness and IOP are similar to values reported for full-sized horses and do not increase with advancing age. Vertical corneal diameter, HCD, and AGL increase until 5, 7, and 2 years of age, respectively.
- Intraocular Pressure
- Reference Values
Agelasphin-11 (AGL-11), a novel alpha-galactosylceramide isolated from an extract of a marine sponge, Agelas mauritianus, markedly prolonged the life span of mice intraperitoneally inoculated with B16 cells. Since AGL-11 did not show any direct cytotoxic activity against B16 cells, this compound is considered to be a biological response modifier (BRM). We focused on the enhancing effect of this compound on in vivo natural killer (NK) cell activity because several BRMs have already been determined to enhance the in vivo natural killer (NK) cell activity. When we evaluated the enhancing activity of AGL-11 using normal mice, AGL-11 enhanced in vivo NK cell activity more potently than Poly I:C, which is a positive control. In addition, we examined the effect of this compound on the NK cell activity of tumor-bearing mice, and found that AGL-11 recovers the reduced NK cell activity in a tumor-bearing condition to a higher level than that of normal mice. These results suggest that AGL-11 shows antitumor activity by the activation of antitumor effector cells such as NK cells.
- Killer Cells, Natural
- Melanoma, Experimental
- Mice, Inbred Strains
- Neoplasm Transplantation
- Stimulation, Chemical
European ferret (Mustela putorius furo) mothers displayed significantly higher levels of anogenital licking (AGL) towards male as opposed to female kits in tests given on postpartum (P) days 6, 12, and 15. In these tests the entire litter was removed from the nestbox for 10 min, whereupon individual male and female kits were reintroduced to the mother in a counterbalanced order. In a second study an analysis of videotapes, sampled over the 24 h of several days, showed that mothers provided significantly more AGL to males than to females on P15, with a similar trend being observed on P1 and P8. This difference was no longer present on P22. In neither experiment was any sex difference observed in the amount of maternal licking of other (nonanogenital) body parts or in maternal carrying behavior received by kits. These results are comparable to those previously published for rat and gerbil, and further emphasize the possible contribution of sex differences in maternal stimulation, especially AGL, to the development of sexually dimorphic features of brain and behavioral development in different mammalian orders.
- Maternal Behavior
- Sex Differentiation
- Videotape Recording