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Complement receptor type 2 precursor (Cr2) (Complement C3d receptor) (Epstein-Barr virus receptor) (EBV receptor) (CD21 antigen) [C3DR]


Age-related but not longevity-related genes are found by weighted gene co-expression network analysis in the peripheral blood cells of humans.

Human lifespan is determined by genetic and environmental factors. Potential longevity genes are neither specific nor reproducible, and longevity-related genes are constantly confused with age-related genes. To distinguish specific age- and longevity-related genes, we analyzed a Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) dataset established by the Leiden Longevity Study. The individuals were classified into longevity (mean age, 93.4 ± 3.0 years), longevity offspring (60.8 ± 6.1) and control (61.9 ± 6.9) groups. The series matrix files were downloaded, and average expression values were calculated. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between longevity and control groups and those between longevity and their offspring were identified by GEO2R online. A total of 507 longevity- and 755 age-related DEGs were visualized using a Venn diagram. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was performed on the longevity- and age-related DEGs. Age-related color modules and genes were identified. However, no longevity-related modules or genes were found. The green module, with 46 age-related DEGs, was the most biologically significant to age and aging. Gene Ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and protein-protein interaction pathway analyses were conducted on these 46 DEGs, which are mainly enriched in B cell activation and receptor signaling pathways. CR2, VPREB3, MS4A1 and CCR6 were considered the most crucial candidate genes for aging.

MeSH Terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Blood Cells
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Gene Regulatory Networks
  • Humans
  • Longevity
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Transcriptome


  • age
  • aging
  • differentially expressed genes
  • longevity

Defective B cell ontogeny and humoral immune response in mice prematurely expressing human complement receptor 2 (CR2, CD21) is similar to that seen in aging wild type mice.

Mice prematurely expressing human CR2 (hCR2) in the B cell lineage have a defective B cell ontogeny and humoral immune response. We have previously determined altered tyrosine phosphorylation patterns within hCR2 transgenic mice, suggesting that irreversible changes in B cell signaling pathways had occurred, which could explain the B cell unresponsiveness associated with hCR2 transgene expression. In support of that assertion, we found that increasing antigen dose or addition of adjuvant had a minimal impact on the ability of B cells to respond to antigen. However, analysis of aged hCR2(high) mice (1 year plus) revealed that both B cell numbers, B cell sub-population distribution including expansion of a newly described B regulatory cell subset, and immune responses were comparable with age-matched hCR2 negative mice. Finally, we established that B cell unresponsiveness to antigen in aging wild type mice (1 year plus) was equivalent to that noted in 3-month-old hCR2(high) mice. This data provides evidence that 3-month-old hCR2(high) mice have a humoral immune system resembling aged mice and suggests that further examination of the precise molecular and cellular parallels between aged wild type mice and 3-month-old hCR2(high) mice could provide an important insight into the mechanisms which lead to B cell unresponsiveness in the aging immune system.

MeSH Terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Aging
  • Animals
  • Antibody Formation
  • Antigens
  • B-Lymphocytes
  • Erythrocytes
  • Germinal Center
  • Humans
  • Immune System
  • Immunoglobulins
  • Lymphocyte Subsets
  • Mice
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Phenotype
  • Receptors, Complement 3d
  • Sheep
  • Spleen
  • Time Factors

Age-related decrease in aromatase and estrogen receptor (ERalpha and ERbeta) expression in rat testes: protective effect of low caloric diets.

To examine the effects on rat aging of caloric restriction (CR1) and undernutrition (CR2) on the body and on testicular weights, on two enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and catalase), on lipid peroxidation and on the expression of testicular aromatase and estrogen receptors (ER). CR was initiated in 1-month-old rats and carried on until the age of 18 months. In control and CR2 rats an age-related decrease of the aromatase and of ER (alpha and beta) gene expression was observed; in parallel a diminution of testicular weights, and of the total number and motility of epididymal spermatozoa was recorded. In addition, aging in control and CR2 rats was accompanied by a significant decrease in testicular superoxide dismutase, catalase activities, and an increase in lipid peroxidation level (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance), associated with alterations of spermatogenesis. Conversely, caloric restriction-treatment exerted a protective effect and all the parameters were less affected by aging. These results indicate that during aging, a low caloric diet (not undernutrition) is beneficial for spermatogenesis and likely improves the protection of the cells via an increase of the cellular antioxidant defense system in which aromatase/ER could play a role.

MeSH Terms

  • Age Factors
  • Aging
  • Animals
  • Aromatase
  • Caloric Restriction
  • Catalase
  • Down-Regulation
  • Estrogen Receptor alpha
  • Estrogen Receptor beta
  • Gene Expression
  • Humans
  • Lipid Peroxidation
  • Male
  • Malnutrition
  • Models, Animal
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Superoxide Dismutase
  • Testis

The effect of caloric restriction on lipofuscin accumulation in mouse brain with age.

Caloric restriction (CR), has been shown to extend average and maximum lifespan in rodents and other animals as well as to delay a wide variety of manifestations of aging. The purpose of this study was to further elucidate the relationship between lipofuscin (LF) accumulation and the aging process by examining the effect of lifelong CR on LF accumulation in brain cells. Specifically, 1) we include age groups of CR (CR1 approximately equal to 90 kcal/wk and CR2 approximately equal to 58 kcal/wk) and ad libidum fed (AL; approximately 120 kcal/wk) mice including groups at maximum lifespan; 2) CR was the major dietary manipulation; 3) LF was identified using EM; 4) LF was quantified by areal measurement; and 5) the results were analyzed by inferential statistics. We have found that 1) LF increased with age and 2) that animals in the CR2 group had significantly less overall LF in the perikarya of the granule cells of the dentate gyrus when compared to CR1 or AL animals at equivalent ages. In addition, CR2 mice at maximum lifespan (45 mo.) had slightly less LF than did CR1 or AL mice at their maximum lifespans (36 mo.). Our results clearly demonstrate that CR (at 52%, but not 25% of AL diet) retards the overall accumulation of LF with time and, further, suggest that LF accumulation is not simply a linear function of age.

MeSH Terms

  • Aging
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Animals
  • Brain
  • Diet, Reducing
  • Female
  • Lipofuscin
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred Strains

Expression and functional characteristics of the complement receptor type 2 on adult and neonatal B lymphocytes.

In vivo antibody synthesis against thymus-independent type 2 (TI-2) antigens such as type-specific polysaccharides of pneumococci is low or absent during the first 2 years of life. Recently, we described a role for CR2 in the in vitro antibody response of B cells of adults to the TI-2 antigen type 4 pneumococcal polysaccharide. In the present study a decreased expression of CR2 is described on cord blood B cells using HB5 and OKB7 anti-CR2 MAb. Crosslinking of HB5 anti-CR2 antibodies on the B cell membrane leads to increases in intracellular calcium ([Ca2 ]i) in both adult and neonatal B cells. In adult B cells, a synergism between CR2 and sIgM could be demonstrated on the level of calcium mobilization by occupying CR2 and crosslinking of sIgM with substimulatory concentrations of anti-IgM antibodies. This synergistic action between CR2 and sIgM could not be demonstrated in neonatal B cells. In addition, it is demonstrated that HB5 MAb cannot induce B cell differentiation in neonatal B cells, while adult B cells can be induced to differentiate into Ig-producing cells by this MAb.

MeSH Terms

  • Adult
  • Aging
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Antibody Formation
  • Antigens, T-Independent
  • B-Lymphocytes
  • Calcium
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cell Membrane
  • Fetal Blood
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin M
  • Indoles
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Lymphocyte Activation
  • Receptors, Complement 3d
  • Signal Transduction