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Tyrosine-protein kinase CSK (EC (C-Src kinase) (Protein-tyrosine kinase CYL)


Cytoskeletal remodelling and slow dynamics in the living cell.

The cytoskeleton (CSK) is a crowded network of structural proteins that stabilizes cell shape and drives cell motions. Recent studies on the dynamics of the CSK have established that a wide variety of cell types exhibit rheology in which responses are not tied to any particular relaxation times and are thus scale-free. Scale-free rheology is often found in a class of materials called soft glasses, but not all materials expressing scale-free rheology are glassy (see plastics, wood, concrete or some metals for example). As such, the extent to which dynamics of the CSK might be regarded as glassy remained an open question. Here we report both forced and spontaneous motions of microbeads tightly bound to the CSK of human muscle cells. Large oscillatory shear fluidized the CSK matrix, which was followed by slow scale-free recovery of rheological properties (aging). Spontaneous bead motions were subdiffusive at short times but superdiffusive at longer times; intermittent motions reflecting nanoscale CSK rearrangements depended on both the approach to kinetic arrest and energy release due to ATP hydrolysis. Aging, intermittency, and approach to kinetic arrest establish a striking analogy between the behaviour of the living CSK and that of inert non-equilibrium systems, including soft glasses, but with important differences that are highly ATP-dependent. These mesoscale dynamics link integrative CSK functions to underlying molecular events, and represent an important intersection of topical issues in condensed matter physics and systems biology.

MeSH Terms

  • Adaptation, Physiological
  • Aging
  • Cell Enlargement
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Cytoskeleton
  • Elasticity
  • Humans
  • Mechanotransduction, Cellular
  • Micromanipulation
  • Muscle, Smooth
  • Shear Strength
  • Stress, Mechanical
  • Viscosity

Abnormal cell proliferation and p52/p35-CSK expression in the colons of aging rats.

In rodents and in humans, aging is associated with increased gastrointestinal epithelial cell proliferation and an expanded crypt proliferative compartment similar to that seen in the preneoplastic bowel. We have compared the distribution of a series of cytoskeletal antigens that are modified when colonic cancer cells differentiate in vitro in the colon of young (4-7 month) and aging (22-26 month) Fischer 344 rats. Two such proteins, p52 and p35, (that are increased in cultured senescent cells) differ in their position in the crypt axis and subcellular localization between young and aging rats. In young rats, immunoreactive p52 protein is present solely near the colonic crypt surface epithelium but in aging rats p52 expressing cells are found deeper in crypts. The intracellular localization of p35 also differs markedly in young and aging animals. The distribution of these proteins appears to be a reproducible biomarker of aging. Antigenic changes similar to those observed in aging colons also are seen in crypt cells of patients with ulcerative colitis and in the flat colonic mucosa of patients with adenomatous polyps and colon cancer. The combination of proliferative and differentiation changes suggest that the flat mucosa of the colon of aging rats has preneoplastic features.

MeSH Terms

  • Aging
  • Animals
  • Biomarkers
  • Cell Division
  • Colon
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins
  • Epithelial Cells
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Male
  • Phenotype
  • Rats
  • Rats, Inbred F344
  • Statistics, Nonparametric