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Alcohol dehydrogenase class-3 (EC (Alcohol dehydrogenase 5) (Alcohol dehydrogenase class chi chain) (Alcohol dehydrogenase class-III) (Glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase) (EC 1.1.1.-) (FALDH) (FDH) (GSH-FDH) (S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione dehydrogenase) (EC [ADHX] [FDH]


Can Serum Nitrosoproteome Predict Longevity of Aged Women?

Aging is characterized by increase in reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species, key factors of cardiac failure and disuse-induced muscle atrophy. This study focused on serum nitroproteome as a trait of longevity by adopting two complementary gel-based techniques: two-dimensional differential in gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and Nitro-DIGE coupled with mass spectrometry of albumin-depleted serum of aged (A, [i]n[/i] = 15) and centenarian (C, [i]n[/i] = 15) versus young females (Y, [i]n[/i] = 15). Results indicate spots differently expressed in A and C compared to Y and spots changed in A vs. C. Nitro-DIGE revealed nitrosated protein spots in A and C compared to Y and spots changed in A vs. C only ([i]p[/i]-value < 0.01). Nitro-proteoforms of alpha-1-antitripsin (SERPINA1), alpha-1-antichimotripsin (SERPINA3), ceruloplasmin (CP), 13 proteoforms of haptoglobin (HP), and inactive glycosyltransferase 25 family member 3 (CERCAM) increased in A vs. Y and C. Conversely, nitrosation levels decreased in C vs. Y and A, for immunoglobulin light chain 1 (IGLC1), serotransferrin (TF), transthyretin (TTR), and vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP). Immunoblottings of alcohol dehydrogenase 5/S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (ADH5/GSNOR) and thioredoxin reductase 1 (TRXR1) indicated lower levels of ADH5 in A vs. Y and C, whereas TRXR1 decreased in A and C in comparison to Y. In conclusion, the study identified putative markers in C of healthy aging and high levels of ADH5/GSNOR that can sustain the denitrosylase activity, promoting longevity.


  • aging
  • cardiovascular disease
  • muscle atrophy
  • nitrosative stress
  • proteomics

Denitrosylate and live longer: how ADH5/GSNOR links mitophagy to aging.

Mitochondrial dynamics is required to adapt the manifold functions of mitochondria to cell needs and regulate their turnover by mitophagy. Actually, only if fragmented, mitochondria are engulfed by phagophores, the precursors to autophagosomes, and subsequently degraded. This process is essential to maintain a correct and healthy number of mitochondria that, otherwise, might be harmful. They, indeed, represent the main source of reactive oxygen species that - according to the mitochondrial free radical theory of aging - can cause aging when chronically overproduced. In a recent study, we demonstrated that S-nitrosylation, the reversible modification of cysteine residues by nitric oxide (NO), hyperactivates mitochondrial fragmentation by targeting DNM1L/Drp1 (dynamin 1-like) at Cys644, but inhibits mitophagy, the concomitant occurrence of these conditions driving cell senescence. We demonstrated that cell senescence, as well as mouse and human aging are characterized by an epigenetically-driven decrease in ADH5/GSNOR (alcohol dehydrogenase 5 [class III], chi polypeptide), suggesting that ADH5 may act as new longevity gene.

MeSH Terms

  • Aging
  • Aldehyde Oxidoreductases
  • Animals
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Mitophagy
  • Models, Biological
  • Nitrosation
  • Reactive Oxygen Species


  • ADH5
  • Drp1
  • S-nitrosylation
  • Tet1
  • aging
  • cell senescence
  • mitochondrial dynamics
  • mitophagy
  • nitric oxide