ADP-ribosylation factor-binding protein GGA1 (Gamma-adaptin-related protein 1) (Golgi-localized, gamma ear-containing, ARF-binding protein 1)
It is well known that clathrin-mediated endocytosis is crucial for the normal functioning and integrity of neurons in the central nervous system. In this study we attempted to correlate the expression of coat proteins with development in different areas of rat brain. By Western blot, we studied the expression of AP-2, GGA1 and GGA2 in striatum, cerebellum, brain stem, cerebral cortex and hippocampus of newborn rats and during post-natal development; 5, 15, 30, 60, 90 or 150 days after birth. We observed that the expression of the α2 subunit of AP-2 increased substantially between the 15th and 30th day after birth in all areas studied, excepting the cerebellum and cortex. On the other hand, the expression of the α1 subunit does not change significantly during the development in any of the areas under study. We also noted that the expression of the μ2 subunit did not follow the pattern of α2 during development. In general terms, the expression of GGA1 and GGA2 followed a similar pattern to that of AP-2, although these proteins increased significantly in the cerebral cortex from the 15th day after birth. Moreover, presenilin-1, a protein associated with aging and neurodegeneration, shows an expression pattern similar to coat proteins in the striatum and cortex. These results suggest that proteins that conform the intracellular transport machinery in the brain cells seems to accompany development, according to the maturation of the different brain areas.
- Adaptor Protein Complex alpha Subunits
- Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport
- Age Factors
- Animals, Newborn
- Capsid Proteins
- Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
- Rats, Wistar
Feather pecking (FP) is a major problem in cage and free-range housing systems. In free-range systems, FP is more difficult to control. It is not known why a victim is being pecked. It could be that a bird is genetically predisposed to be pecked. To study the genetics of FP behavior, a large F2 population of 630 hens was generated from a cross between two commercial laying lines differing in their propensity to feather peck. The traits measured at 6 and 30 wk of age were receiving gentle FP, receiving severe FP, and receiving aggressive pecking. In addition, receiving toe pecking (TP) was also measured at 30 wk of age. For receiving gentle FP at 6 wk of age, a significant QTL on GGA1 and three different suggestive QTL were identified on GGA2, GGA6, and GGA7, respectively. For receiving gentle FP at 30 wk of age, a suggestive QTL on GGA5 was detected. For receiving aggressive pecking, a suggestive QTL was detected on GGA3. For receiving TP, three suggestive QTL were detected on GGA1, GGA5, and GGA23, respectively. The different QTL detected for receiving gentle FP at different ages indicate that this trait is regulated by different genes in young and adult hens.
- Behavior, Animal
- Crosses, Genetic
- Quantitative Trait Loci