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Forkhead box protein O1 (Forkhead box protein O1A) (Forkhead in rhabdomyosarcoma) [FKHR] [FOXO1A]


The phytochemical epigallocatechin gallate prolongs the lifespan by improving lipid metabolism, reducing inflammation and oxidative stress in high-fat diet-fed obese rats.

We have recently reported that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) could extend lifespan in healthy rats. This study aimed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of a high dose of EGCG in extending the lifespan of obese rats. Ninety adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the control (NC), high-fat (HF) and EGCG groups. Serum glucose and lipids, inflammation and oxidative stress were dynamically determined from adulthood to death, and the transcriptome and proteome of the liver were also examined. The median lifespans of the NC, HF and EGCG groups were 693, 599 and 683 days, respectively, and EGCG delayed death by 84 days in obese rats. EGCG improved serum glucose and lipids and reduced inflammation and oxidative stress associated with aging in obese rats induced by a high-fat diet. EGCG also significantly decreased the levels of total free fatty acids (FFAs), SFAs and the n-6/n-3 ratio but significantly increased the n-3 FFAs related to longevity. The joint study of the transcriptome and proteome in liver found that EGCG exerted its effects mainly by regulating the suppression of hydrogen peroxide and oxygen species metabolism, suppression of oxidative stress, activation of fatty acid transport and oxidation and cholesterol metabolism. EGCG significantly increased the protein expression of FOXO1, Sirt1, CAT, FABP1, GSTA2, ACSL1 and CPT2 but significantly decreased NF-κB, ACC1 and FAS protein levels in the livers of rats. All the results indicate that EGCG extends lifespan by improving FFA metabolism and reducing the levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress in obese rats.


  • EGCG
  • free fatty acid
  • high-fat dietary
  • lifespan
  • proteomics
  • transcriptome

Ginsenoside Rg1 protects against d-galactose induced fatty liver disease in a mouse model via FOXO1 transcriptional factor.

Rg1 is the most active component of traditional Chinese medicine ginseng, having anti-aging and anti-oxidative stress features in multiple organs. Cellular senescence of hepatocytes is involved in the progression of a wide spectrum of chronic liver diseases. In this study, we investigated the potential benefits and mechanism of action of Rg1 on aging-driven chronic liver diseases. A total of 40 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: control group; Rg1 group; Rg1 d-gal group; and d-gal group. Blood and liver tissue samples were collected for determination of liver function, biochemical and molecular markers, as well as histopathological investigation. Rg1 played an anti-aging role in reversing d-galactose induced increase in senescence-associated SA-β-gal staining and p53, p21 protein in hepatocytes of mice and sustained mitochondria homeostasis. Meanwhile, Rg1 protected livers from d-galactose caused abnormal elevation of ALT and AST in serum, hepatic steatosis, reduction in hepatic glucose production, hydrogenic degeneration, inflammatory phenomena including senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1 elevation and lymphocyte infiltration. Furthermore, Rg1 suppressed drastic elevation in FOXO1 phosphorylation resulting in maintaining FOXO1 protein level in the liver after d-galactose treatment, followed by FOXO1 targeted antioxidase SOD and CAT significant up-regulation concurrent with marked decrease in lipid peroxidation marker MDA. Rg1 exerts pharmaceutic effects of maintaining FOXO1 activity in liver, which enhances anti-oxidation potential of Rg1 to ameliorate SASP and to inhibit inflammation, also promotes metabolic homeostasis, and thus protects livers from senescence induced fatty liver disease. The study provides a potential therapeutic strategy for alleviating chronic liver pathology.

MeSH Terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants
  • Cellular Senescence
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Fatty Liver
  • Forkhead Box Protein O1
  • Galactose
  • Ginsenosides
  • Lipid Peroxidation
  • Male
  • Medicine, Chinese Traditional
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Protective Agents
  • Transcription Factors


  • D-galactose
  • FOXO1
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
  • Rg1
  • Senescence

Gene expression in human mesenchymal stem cell aging cultures: modulation by short peptides.

Effects of the short peptides Ala-Glu-Asp (AED), Lys-Glu-Asp (KED) and Lys-Glu (KE) on the expression of IGF1, FOXO1, TERT, TNKS2, and NFκB genes were studied in human embryo bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (line FetMSCs) variously aged in "passages" or "stationary" cultures. Both cell aging models were similar in gene expression. The main difference was in the TERT gene expression level, which showed an eightfold increase at the "stationary" aging. IGF1 gene expression levels were very similar in both cell culture aging models, being enhanced by 3.5-5.6 fold upon the addition of the peptides. The FOXO1 gene was expressed twice more actively in the "stationary" than in the "passages" aging model. KED peptide inhibited FOXO1 gene expression by 1.6-2.3 fold. KE peptide increased FOXO1 gene expression by about two-fold in the "stationary" aging model but did not affect it in the "passage" aging model. The most striking difference in the peptide effect on cell aging between "passages" and "stationary" aging models was in the KED effects on TNKS2 gene expression; this expression was inhibited by KED in the "passages" model, while stimulation was observed in the "stationary" model. AED, KED, and KE stimulated expression of the NFκB gene in both models. Thus, the peptides studied at nanomolar concentrations modulate the expression of some genes known to be involved in cell aging.


  • Cell aging
  • Genes
  • Human mesenchymal stem cells
  • Short peptides

l-Theanine attenuates liver aging by inhibiting advanced glycation end products in d-galactose-induced rats and reversing an imbalance of oxidative stress and inflammation.

Redox and inflammation imbalances are associated with increased levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), leading to the degeneration of body function. l-Theanine, derived from tea, reportedly inhibits AGE formation in vitro. We investigated the effects on AGE content, oxidative stress, and inflammatory factors in d-galactose-induced aging rats for prevention and treatment of age-related liver dysfunction. l-Theanine increased activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, thus enhancing total antioxidant capacity, and decreasing malondialdehyde and nitric oxide synthase levels in serum and liver. Levels of the pro-inflammatory factors, interleukin (IL)-1β, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, and IL-6 were decreased in serum and liver, whereas those of anti-inflammatory factors, IL-4 and IL-10, were increased in the serum. Further, l-theanine inhibited AGE production and decreased the levels of the liver function markers, alanine aminotransaminase and aspartate aminotransferase. It also significantly increased the mRNA expression levels of FoxO1 and downregulated NF-κB(p65) but suppressed the phosphorylation of both FOXO1 and NF-κB (p65). Moreover, l-theanine effectively attenuated d-galactose-induced oedema and vacuole formation, thus protecting the liver. Overall, l-theanine reversed the d-galactose-induced imbalance in oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, reduced AGEs content in aging rats, maintained homeostasis in the body, and ameliorated liver aging.


  • AGEs
  • Inflammatory response
  • Liver aging
  • Oxidative stress
  • l-Theanine

Increased REST to Optimize Life Span?

Reduced levels of neural activity are associated with a longer life span in the nematode [i]Caenorhabditis elegans[/i] and in mice. Augmented neural activity is associated with a shorter life span. Recent studies show that levels of repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor (REST) increase with normal aging in mice and humans, and reduce neuronal excitation. In [i]C. elegans,[/i] increased expression of [i]spr-4[/i], a functional REST homologue, increased the worm life span and is required for classical life span increase mediated by reduced DAF-2/insulin-IGF-1 and increased DAF-16. Preliminary evidence shows that REST and FOXO1, a DAF-16, homologue increase during mammalian aging, and that REST activity is needed for the age-related FOXO1 increase. On the contrary, REST is activated in epilepsy and plays a role in the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease. A simple unifying hypothesis suggests that REST is a "goldilocks-effect factor": too little REST promotes excitotoxic activity, which in turn leads to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. Appropriate increased levels of REST maintain the excitation/inhibition (E-I) balance by reducing potential excitotoxic activity. Increased levels of REST beyond this are toxic as neurons become dysfunctional due to loss of a neuronal phenotype.

MeSH Terms

  • Animals
  • Caenorhabditis elegans
  • Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins
  • Homeostasis
  • Longevity
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Signal Transduction


  • life span
  • neuronal activity
  • neurotoxicity

Regulation of lifespan by neural excitation and REST.

The mechanisms that extend lifespan in humans are poorly understood. Here we show that extended longevity in humans is associated with a distinct transcriptome signature in the cerebral cortex that is characterized by downregulation of genes related to neural excitation and synaptic function. In Caenorhabditis elegans, neural excitation increases with age and inhibition of excitation globally, or in glutamatergic or cholinergic neurons, increases longevity. Furthermore, longevity is dynamically regulated by the excitatory-inhibitory balance of neural circuits. The transcription factor REST is upregulated in humans with extended longevity and represses excitation-related genes. Notably, REST-deficient mice exhibit increased cortical activity and neuronal excitability during ageing. Similarly, loss-of-function mutations in the C. elegans REST orthologue genes spr-3 and spr-4 elevate neural excitation and reduce the lifespan of long-lived daf-2 mutants. In wild-type worms, overexpression of spr-4 suppresses excitation and extends lifespan. REST, SPR-3, SPR-4 and reduced excitation activate the longevity-associated transcription factors FOXO1 and DAF-16 in mammals and worms, respectively. These findings reveal a conserved mechanism of ageing that is mediated by neural circuit activity and regulated by REST.

MeSH Terms

  • Aging
  • Animals
  • Brain
  • Caenorhabditis elegans
  • Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors
  • Humans
  • Longevity
  • Mice
  • Mice, 129 Strain
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Neurons
  • RNA Interference
  • RNA-Binding Proteins
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Transcription Factors

Herbal Medicine for Slowing Aging and Aging-associated Conditions: Efficacy, Mechanisms and Safety.

Aging and aging-associated diseases are issues with unsatisfactory answers in the medical field. Aging causes important physical changes which, even in the absence of the usual risk factors, render the cardiovascular system prone to some diseases. Although aging cannot be prevented, slowing down the rate of aging is entirely possible to achieve. In some traditional medicine, medicinal herbs such as Ginseng, Radix Astragali, Ganoderma lucidum, Ginkgo biloba, and Gynostemma pentaphyllum are recognized by the "nourishing of life" and their role as anti-aging phytotherapeutics is increasingly gaining attention. By mainly employing PubMed here we identify and critically analysed 30 years of published studies focusing on the above herbs' active components against aging and aging-associated conditions. Although many plant-based compounds appear to exert an anti-aging effect, the most effective resulted in being flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, and polysaccharides, which include astragaloside, ginkgolide, ginsenoside, and gypenoside specifically covered in this review. Their effects as antiaging factors, improvers of cognitive impairments, and reducers of cardiovascular risks are described, as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying the above-mentioned effects along with their potential safety. Telomere and telomerase, PPAR-α, GLUTs, FOXO1, caspase-3, bcl-2, along with SIRT1/AMPK, PI3K/Akt, NF-κB, and insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 pathways appear to be their preferential targets. Moreover, their ability to work as antioxidants and to improve the resistance to DNA damage is also discussed. Although our literature review indicates that these traditional herbal medicines are safe, tolerable, and free of toxic effects, additional well-designed, large-scale randomized control trials need to be performed to evaluate short- and long-term effects and efficacy of these medicinal herbs.


  • Herbal medicine
  • aging
  • antioxidants
  • cardiovascular diseases
  • cognitive impairment
  • elderly
  • inflammation
  • metabolic disorders
  • oxidative stress
  • signal transduction
  • signaling
  • traditional


{{medline-entry |title=Establishment of a Mouse Model of Premature Ovarian Failure Using Consecutive Superovulation. |pubmed-url= |abstract=This study investigated the effect of consecutive superovulation on the ovaries and established a premature ovarian failure (POF) model in mice. The mouse POF model was induced by 5-15 consecutive superovulation treatments with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG), human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α). Normal adult mice were compared with mice displaying natural ovarian aging. The following serum biochemical parameters were measured: including follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), progesterone (P), estradiol (E2), inhibin B (INH B), malondialdehyde (MDA), total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels. Follicles were counted using H