Fibroblast growth factor 8 precursor (FGF-8) (Androgen-induced growth factor) (AIGF) (Heparin-binding growth factor 8) (HBGF-8) [AIGF]
The aim was to characterize and correlate steroid hormone receptors with the FGF2, FGF7 and FGF8 reactivities in the prostatic epithelium and stroma in senile rats. Fifty male senile rats and 10 young male rats were divided into the young (YNG), the senile groups (SE), the castrated group (CAS), the estrogen-deficient group (ED), the castrated estrogen group (CASE), and the estrogen-deficient androgen group (EDTEST). The ventral prostate was submitted to immunohistochemical and Western blotting analyses. The results showed decreased AR and ERβ levels and increased ERα in the senile animals in relation to YNG group. Increased ERα and ERβ reactivities presenting differential localization were characterized in the CASE group compared to the CAS group. Increased FGF2 level was observed in the stroma of the CAS and ED groups in relation to the SE group and in the epithelium of the ED group in relation to the other groups. Increased and differential immunolocalization of FGF7 levels were observed in the CAS, ED and CASE groups. The FGF8 levels showed differential localization in the CAS and ED groups compared to the senile group. The intense hormone ablation was favorable to the autocrine signaling of FGF2 and FGF8. FGF7 could be activated in the androgen-independent via considering the increased FGF7 in the castrated rats. We concluded that hormone ablation in senescence was favorable to activation or/and to fibroblast signaling in the prostatic microenvironment.
- Cellular Microenvironment
- Fibroblast Growth Factors
- Gonadal Steroid Hormones
- Rats, Sprague-Dawley
- Receptors, Androgen
- Receptors, Estrogen
Multiple Osteochondromas (MO; previously known as multiple hereditary exostosis) is an autosomal dominant genetic condition that is characterized by the formation of cartilaginous bone tumours (osteochondromas) at multiple sites in the skeleton, secondary bursa formation and impingement of nerves, tendons and vessels, bone curving, and short stature. MO is also known to be associated with arthritis, general pain, scarring and occasional malignant transformation of osteochondroma into secondary peripheral chondrosarcoma. MO patients present additional complains but the relevance of those in relation to the syndromal background needs validation. Mutations in two enzymes that are required during heparan sulphate synthesis (EXT1 or EXT2) are known to cause MO. Previously, we have used zebrafish which harbour mutations in ext2 as a model for MO and shown that ext2⁻/⁻ fish have skeletal defects that resemble those seen in osteochondromas. Here we analyse dental defects present in ext2⁻/⁻ fish. Histological analysis reveals that ext2⁻/⁻ fish have very severe defects associated with the formation and the morphology of teeth. At 5 days post fertilization 100% of ext2⁻/⁻ fish have a single tooth at the end of the 5(th) pharyngeal arch, whereas wild-type fish develop three teeth, located in the middle of the pharyngeal arch. ext2⁻/⁻ teeth have abnormal morphology (they were shorter and thicker than in the WT) and patchy ossification at the tooth base. Deformities such as split crowns and enamel lesions were found in 20% of ext2⁺/⁻ adults. The tooth morphology in ext2⁻/⁻ was partially rescued by FGF8 administered locally (bead implants). Our findings from zebrafish model were validated in a dental survey that was conducted with assistance of the MHE Research Foundation. The presence of the malformed and/or displaced teeth with abnormal enamel was declared by half of the respondents indicating that MO might indeed be also associated with dental problems.
- Exostoses, Multiple Hereditary
- Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
- Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans
- Signal Transduction
- Tooth Diseases