Coagulation factor VIII precursor (Antihemophilic factor) (AHF) (Procoagulant component) [Contains: Factor VIIIa heavy chain, 200 kDa isoform; Factor VIIIa heavy chain, 92 kDa isoform; Factor VIII B chain; Factor VIIIa light chain] [F8C]
Leading theories of affect development and empirical studies suggest that emotion can enhance memory in older adults. Destination memory which is defined as the ability to remember to whom we told a piece of information is being found to be compromised in aging. In the present study, we sought to assess destination memory using emotional stimuli (Emotional Destination Memory, EDM) in 16 older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 16 healthy controls and shed light onto its potential neurophysiological aspects. We measured Mu suppression in frontal and temporal regions via EEG in real time while participants performed the task of EDM. Results showed no group differences in task performance but significant differences in fronto-temporal activations, specifically in electrodes F7 and F8. Differential Mu rhythm pattern was observed between healthy controls and MCI with the first exhibiting Mu suppression and the last Mu enhancement. Furthermore, Mu enhancement in temporal electrodes within the MCI group was associated with lower scores on EDM. The absence of group differences in the task can be explained by the fact that even if there are underlying structural or functional deficits in the MCI group, these deficits are manifested only at neurophysiological level and not at a behavioral level, which is a common pattern in the process of cognitive decline in its initial phases. The overall findings reveal that, even if there are not any behavioral decrements in MCI patients, they show reduced activations in fronto-temporal regions and this can be attributed to general impairment in emotional destination memory due to possible mirror neuron deficiency.
- Cognitive Dysfunction
- Frontal Lobe
- Neurophysiological Monitoring
- Neuropsychological Tests
- Task Performance and Analysis
- Temporal Lobe
- Emotional destination memory
- Mu suppression
- mild cognitive impairment
- mirror neurons
The heart begins to beat before the brain is formed. Whether conventional hierarchical central commands sent by the brain to the heart alone explain all the interplay between these two organs should be reconsidered. Here, we demonstrate correlations between the signal complexity of brain and cardiac activity. Eighty-seven geriatric outpatients with healthy hearts and varied cognitive abilities each provided a 24-hour electrocardiography (ECG) and a 19-channel eye-closed routine electroencephalography (EEG). Multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis was applied to three epochs (resting-awake state, photic stimulation of fast frequencies (fast-PS), and photic stimulation of slow frequencies (slow-PS)) of EEG in the 1-58 Hz frequency range, and three RR interval (RRI) time series (awake-state, sleep and that concomitant with the EEG) for each subject. The low-to-high frequency power (LF/HF) ratio of RRI was calculated to represent sympatho-vagal balance. With statistics after Bonferroni corrections, we found that: (a) the summed MSE value on coarse scales of the awake RRI (scales 11-20, RRI-MSE-coarse) were inversely correlated with the summed MSE value on coarse scales of the resting-awake EEG (scales 6-20, EEG-MSE-coarse) at Fp2, C4, T6 and T4; (b) the awake RRI-MSE-coarse was inversely correlated with the fast-PS EEG-MSE-coarse at O1, O2 and C4; (c) the sleep RRI-MSE-coarse was inversely correlated with the slow-PS EEG-MSE-coarse at Fp2; (d) the RRI-MSE-coarse and LF/HF ratio of the awake RRI were correlated positively to each other; (e) the EEG-MSE-coarse at F8 was proportional to the cognitive test score; (f) the results conform to the cholinergic hypothesis which states that cognitive impairment causes reduction in vagal cardiac modulation; (g) fast-PS significantly lowered the EEG-MSE-coarse globally. Whether these heart-brain correlations could be fully explained by the central autonomic network is unknown and needs further exploration.
- Aged, 80 and over
- Photic Stimulation