Endothelial differentiation-related factor 1 (EDF-1) (Multiprotein-bridging factor 1) (MBF1)
Ectopic expression of FOREVER YOUNG FLOWER (FYF) delays floral senescence and abscission in transgenic Arabidopsis. To analyze the FYF function in Phalaenopsis orchids, two FYF-like genes (PaFYF1/2) were identified. PaFYF1/2 were highly expressed in young Phalaenopsis flowers, and their expression decreased significantly afterward until flower senescence. This pattern was strongly correlated with the process of flower senescence and revealed that PaFYF1/2 function to suppress senescence/abscission during early flower development. Interestingly, in flowers, PaFYF1 was consistently expressed less in petals than in lips/sepals, whereas PaFYF2 was expressed relatively evenly in all flower organs. This difference suggests a regulatory modification of the functions of PaFYF1 and PaFYF2 during Phalaenopsis flower evolution. Delayed flower senescence and abscission, which were unaffected by ethylene treatment, were observed in 35S::PaFYF1/2 and 35S::PaFYF1/2 SRDX transgenic Arabidopsis plants due to downregulation of the ethylene signaling and abscission-associated genes EDF1-4, IDA and BOP1/2. These results suggest a possible repressor role for Phalaenopsis PaFYF1/2 in controlling floral senescence/abscission by suppressing ethylene signaling and abscission-associated genes. To further validate the function of PaFYF1/2, PaFYF1/2-VIGS (virus-induced gene silencing) Phalaenopsis were generated and analyzed. Promotion of senescence and abscission was observed in PaFYF1/2-VIGS Phalaenopsis flowers by the upregulation of PeEDF1/2, PeSAG39 and PeBOP1/2 expression, early occurrence of greening according to their increased chlorophyll content and reduction of water content in flower organs. Our results support that PaFYF1/2 function as transcriptional repressors to prohibit flower senescence and abscission in Phalaenopsis.
FOREVER YOUNG FLOWER
- Ethylene responses
- MADS-box gene