Dedicator of cytokinesis protein 11 (Activated Cdc42-associated guanine nucleotide exchange factor) (ACG) (Zizimin-2) [ZIZ2]
Recently, aging is becoming an important social problem in many developed countries including Japan. It is socially and universally important to unveil the impact of aging and extend healthy life expectancy. Here we show our recent finding that dedicator of cytokinesis 11 (DOCK11, also known as Zizimin2) may be involved in immunosenescence of B cells. DOCK11 was identified as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for a small GTPase called cell division cycle 42. Expression of DOCK11 is restricted to lymphoid tissues, and becomes downregulated with age. Thus we examined the involvement of DOCK11 in immunosenescence of B-1a B cells as an example. B-1a cells are the main source of antibodies at steady state, and function as the first line of defense against infection. Although DOCK11 was expressed by B-1a cells, the expression levels declined with age. Furthermore, production of anti-pneumococcal immunoglobulin M antibodies was suppressed in aged mice, and was recovered by adoptive transfer with B-1a cells in a DOCK11-dependent manner. Thus DOCK11 may be involved in immunosenescence of B-1a cells.
- Gene Expression
- Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors
- Immunoglobulin M
- Nutritional Status
- Streptococcus pneumoniae
- B-1a B cell
- dedicator of cytokinesis 11
In this study, we estimated the genetic parameters and identified the putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the length of productive life (LPL), days open (DO), and 305-day milk yield for the first lactation (FM305) of crossbred Holstein dairy cattle. Data comprising 4,739 records collected between 1986 and 2004 were used to estimate the variance-covariance components using the multiple-trait animal linear mixed models based on the average information restricted maximum likelihood (AI-REML) algorithm. Thirty-six animals were genotyped using the Illumina BovineSNP50 Bead Chip [>50,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)] to identify the putative QTL in a genome-wide association study. The heritability of the production trait FM305 was 0.25 and that of the functional traits, LPL and DO, was low (0.10 and 0.06, respectively). The genetic correlation estimates demonstrated favorable negative correlations between LPL and DO (-0.02). However, we observed a favorable positive correlation between FM305 and LPL (0.43) and an unfavorable positive correlation between FM305 and DO (0.1). The GWAS results indicated that 23 QTLs on bovine chromosomes 1, 4, 5, 8, 15, 26, and X were associated with the traits of interest, and the putative QTL regions were identified within seven genes (SYT1, DOCK11, KLHL13, IL13RA1, PRKG1, GNA14, and LRRC4C). In conclusion, the heritability estimates of the LPL and DO were low. Therefore, the approach of multiple-trait selection indexes should be applied, and the QTL identified here should be considered for use in marker-assisted selection in the future.
- Genome-Wide Association Study
- Quantitative Trait Loci
- Quantitative Trait, Heritable
- Selective Breeding