Dickkopf-related protein 2 precursor (Dickkopf-2) (Dkk-2) (hDkk-2) [UNQ682/PRO1316]
There are currently no robust noninvasive markers of fragility fractures. Secreted frizzled related protein-1 (sFRP-1), dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1) and DKK2, and sclerostin (SOST) inhibit Wnt signaling and interfere with osteoblast-mediated bone formation. We evaluated associations of serum levels of sFRP-1, DKK1, DKK2, and SOST with incident low-impact fracture and BMD in 828 women aged ≥65 years from EpiDoC, a longitudinal population-based cohort. A structured questionnaire during a baseline clinical appointment assessed prevalent fragility fractures and clinical risk factors (CRFs) for fracture. Blood was collected to measure serum levels of bone turnover markers and Wnt regulators. Lumbar spine and hip BMD were determined by DXA scanning. Follow-up assessment was performed through a phone interview; incident fragility fracture was defined by any new self-reported low-impact fracture. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyze fracture risk adjusted for CRFs and BMD. During a mean follow-up of 2.3 ± 1.0 years, 62 low-impact fractures were sustained in 58 women. A low serum DKK2 level (per 1 SD decrease) was associated with a 1.5-fold increase in fracture risk independently of BMD and CRFs. Women in the two lowest DKK2 quartiles had a fracture incidence rate of 32 per 1000 person-years, whereas women in the two highest quartiles had 14 fragility fractures per 1000 person-years. A high serum sFRP1 level was associated with a 1.6-fold increase in fracture risk adjusted for CRFs, but not independently of BMD. Serum levels of SOST ([i]r[/i] = 0.191; [i]p[/i] = 0.0025) and DKK1([i]r[/i] = -0.1725; [i]p[/i] = 0.011) were correlated with hip BMD, but not with incident fragility fracture. These results indicate that serum DKK2 and sFRP1 may predict low-impact fracture. The low number of incident fractures recorded is a limitation and serum levels of Wnt regulators should be further studied in other populations as potential noninvasive markers of fragility fractures. © 2019 The Authors. [i]JBMR Plus[/i] published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
- FRACTURE RISK ASSESSMENT
- MOLECULAR PATHWAYS–REMODELING
Leukocyte telomere length is believed to measure cellular aging in humans, and short leukocyte telomere length is associated with increased risks of late onset diseases, including cardiovascular disease, dementia, etc. Many studies have shown that leukocyte telomere length is a heritable trait, and several candidate genes have been identified, including TERT, TERC, OBFC1, and CTC1. Unlike most studies that have focused on genetic causes of chronic diseases such as heart disease and diabetes in relation to leukocyte telomere length, the present study examined the genome to identify variants that may contribute to variation in leukocyte telomere length among families with exceptional longevity. From the genome wide association analysis in 4,289 LLFS participants, we identified a novel intergenic SNP rs7680468 located near PAPSS1 and DKK2 on 4q25 (p = 4.7E-8). From our linkage analysis, we identified two additional novel loci with HLOD scores exceeding three, including 4.77 for 17q23.2, and 4.36 for 10q11.21. These two loci harbor a number of novel candidate genes with SNPs, and our gene-wise association analysis identified multiple genes, including DCAF7, POLG2, CEP95, and SMURF2 at 17q23.2; and RASGEF1A, HNRNPF, ANF487, CSTF2T, and PRKG1 at 10q11.21. Among these genes, multiple SNPs were associated with leukocyte telomere length, but the strongest association was observed with one contiguous haplotype in CEP95 and SMURF2. We also show that three previously reported genes-TERC, MYNN, and OBFC1-were significantly associated with leukocyte telomere length at p empirical < 0.05.
- familial longevity
- family-based study
- genome wide association and linkage
- novel genes
- telomere length