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Dermcidin precursor (EC 3.4.-.-) (Preproteolysin) [Contains: Survival-promoting peptide; DCD-1] [AIDD] [DSEP]


Improved metabolism and redox state with a novel preservation solution: implications for donor lungs after cardiac death (DCD).

Lungs donated after cardiac death (DCD) are an underutilized resource for a dwindling donor lung transplant pool. Our study investigates the potential of a novel preservation solution, Somah, to better preserve statically stored DCD lungs, for an extended time period, when compared to low-potassium dextran solution (LPD). We hypothesize that Somah is a metabolically superior organ preservation solution for hypothermic statically stored porcine DCD lungs, possibly improving lung transplant outcomes. Porcine DCD lungs (n = 3 per group) were flushed with and submerged in cold preservation solution. The lungs were stored up to 12 h, and samples were taken from lung tissue and the preservation medium throughout. Metabolomic and redox potential were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, and RedoxSYS®, comparing substrate and pathway utilization in both preservation solutions. Glutathione reduction was seen in Somah but not in LPD during preservation. Carnitine, carnosine, and n-acetylcarnosine levels were elevated in the Somah medium compared with LPD throughout. Biopsies of Somah exposed lungs demonstrated similar trends after 2 h, up to 12 h. Adenosine gradually decreased in Somah medium over 12 h, but not in LPD. An inversely proportional increase in inosine was found in Somah. Higher oxidative stress levels were measured in LPD. Our study suggests suboptimal metabolic preservation in lungs stored in LPD. LPD had poor antioxidant potential, cytoprotection, and an insufficient redox potential. These findings may have immediate clinical implications for human organs; however, further investigation is needed to evaluate DCD lung preservation in Somah as a viable option for transplant.


  • metabolomics
  • organ longevity
  • transplant

Functional connectivity of neural motor networks is disrupted in children with developmental coordination disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are prevalent childhood disorders that frequently co-occur. Evidence from neuroimaging research suggests that children with these disorders exhibit disruptions in motor circuitry, which could account for the high rate of co-occurrence. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the functional connections of the motor network in children with DCD and/or ADHD compared to typically developing controls, with the aim of identifying common neurophysiological substrates. Resting-state fMRI was performed on seven children with DCD, 21 with ADHD, 18 with DCD   ADHD and 23 controls. Resting-state connectivity of the primary motor cortex was compared between each group and controls, using age as a co-factor. Relative to controls, children with DCD and/or ADHD exhibited similar reductions in functional connectivity between the primary motor cortex and the bilateral inferior frontal gyri, right supramarginal gyrus, angular gyri, insular cortices, amygdala, putamen, and pallidum. In addition, children with DCD and/or ADHD exhibited different age-related patterns of connectivity, compared to controls. These findings suggest that children with DCD and/or ADHD exhibit disruptions in motor circuitry, which may contribute to problems with motor functioning and attention. Our results support the existence of common neurophysiological substrates underlying both motor and attention problems.

MeSH Terms

  • Adolescent
  • Aging
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
  • Child
  • Connectome
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male
  • Motor Cortex
  • Motor Skills Disorders
  • Movement
  • Nerve Net
  • Neural Pathways
  • Rest


  • ADHD, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
  • DCD, developmental coordination disorder
  • DSM-IV, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition)
  • DTI, diffusion tensor imaging
  • Developmental coordination disorder
  • FC, functional connectivity
  • Functional connectivity
  • GLM general, linear model
  • ICA, independent component analysis
  • M1, primary motor cortex
  • PFC, prefrontal cortex
  • Resting state fMRI, Motor networks
  • fMRI, functional magnetic resonance imaging
  • rs-fMRI, resting-state fMRI

Does comfort therapy during controlled donation after circulatory death shorten the life of potential donors?

Controlled donation after circulatory death (DCD) remains ethically controversial. The authors developed a controlled DCD protocol in which comfort therapy is regularly used. The aim of this study was to determine whether this policy shortens the DCD donors' life. The authors retrospectively analyzed prospectively collected data on patients proposed for DCD at the University Hospital of Liege, Belgium, over a 56-month period. The survival duration of these patients, defined as duration between the time of proposal for DCD and the time of circulatory arrest, was compared between patients who actually donated organs and those who did not. About 128 patients were considered for controlled DCD and 54 (43%) became donors. Among the 74 non-donor patients, 34 (46%) objected to organ donation, 38 patients (51%) were denied by the transplant team for various medical reasons, and two potential DCD donors did not undergo procurement due to logistical and organizational reasons. The survival durations were similar in the DCD donor and non-donor groups. No non-donor patient survived. Survival of DCD donors is not shortened when compared with non-donor patients. These data support the ethical and respectful approach to potential DCD donors in the authors' center, including regular comfort therapy.

MeSH Terms

  • Aged
  • Brain Death
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Longevity
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Organ Transplantation
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Time Factors
  • Tissue and Organ Harvesting
  • Tissue and Organ Procurement
  • Withholding Treatment


  • end-of-life
  • ethics
  • non-heart beating donors
  • organ donation
  • policy
  • transplantation

Synergistic effects of prolonged warm ischemia and donor age on the immune response following donation after cardiac death kidney transplantation.

Organs from DCD (donation after cardiac death) donors are increasingly used for transplantation. The impact of advanced donor age and warm ischemia on the immune response of the recipient has not been studied. We developed a novel and clinically relevant model of DCD kidney transplantation and investigated the effects of donor age and prolonged warm ischemia on the recipient immune response after following DCD kidney transplantation. DCD grafts from young and old F-344 donor rats were engrafted into LEW recipients who were nephrectomized bilaterally after a short (20 minutes) or prolonged (45 minutes) warm ischemia time. Analysis of the recipient's immune response early after transplantation showed an enhanced innate and adaptive immune response when old DCD kidneys were engrafted. Next, we studied DCD recipients with a supportive, contralateral native kidney in place, which allowed the recovery of the transplanted DCD kidney. Old DCD kidneys, demonstrated an impaired renal function associated with pronounced histomorphologic graft deterioration and an enhanced immune response by day 100 after transplantation. Interestingly, young DCD kidneys with a long warm ischemic time recovered from acute tubular necrosis and did not stimulate the long-term immune response. Our observations emphasize that prolonged warm ischemic time and advanced donor age augment the immune response after transplantation of DCD grafts. These results provide an experimental model and a mechanistic framework of clinically relevant aspects in DCD donation.

MeSH Terms

  • Adaptive Immunity
  • Aging
  • Animals
  • Death
  • Graft Survival
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Kidney
  • Kidney Transplantation
  • Models, Animal
  • Rats
  • Rats, Inbred F344
  • Rats, Inbred Lew
  • Time Factors
  • Tissue Donors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Warm Ischemia

Depressive symptomatology in child and adolescent twins with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and/or developmental coordination disorder.

Previous research has demonstrated a link between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), developmental coordination disorder (DCD), and depression. The present study utilized a monozygotic (MZ) differences design to investigate differences in depressive symptomatology between MZ twins discordant for ADHD or DCD. This extends previous research as it controls for genetic effects and shared environmental influences and enables the investigation of nonshared environmental influences. In addition, children and adolescents with comorbid ADHD and DCD were compared on their level of depressive symptomatology to those with ADHD only, DCD only, and no ADHD or DCD. The parent-rated Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behavior, Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire, and Sad Affect Scale were used to assess ADHD, DCD, and depressive symptomatology respectively. The results revealed higher levels of depressive symptomatology in MZ twins with ADHD or DCD compared to their nonaffected co-twins. In addition, children and adolescents with comorbid ADHD and DCD demonstrated higher levels of depressive symptomatology compared to those with ADHD only, DCD only, and no ADHD or DCD. The implications of these findings are discussed with emphasis on understanding and recognizing the relationship between ADHD, DCD, and depression in the assessment and intervention for children and adolescents with these disorders.

MeSH Terms

  • Adolescent
  • Aging
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
  • Behavior
  • Child
  • Depressive Disorder
  • Diseases in Twins
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Motor Skills Disorders
  • Twins, Dizygotic
  • Twins, Monozygotic