Tyrosine-protein kinase BTK (EC 188.8.131.52) (Agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase) (ATK) (B-cell progenitor kinase) (BPK) (Bruton tyrosine kinase) [AGMX1] [ATK] [BPK]
One of the hallmarks of aging is the progressive accumulation of senescent cells in organisms, which has been proposed to be a contributing factor to age-dependent organ dysfunction. We recently reported that Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is an upstream component of the p53 responses to DNA damage. BTK binds to and phosphorylates p53 and MDM2, which results in increased p53 activity. Consistent with this, blocking BTK impairs p53-induced senescence. This suggests that sustained BTK inhibition could have an effect on organismal aging by reducing the presence of senescent cells in tissues. Here, we show that ibrutinib, a clinically approved covalent inhibitor of BTK, prolonged the maximum lifespan of a Zmpste24 progeroid mice, which also showed a reduction in general age-related fitness loss. Importantly, we found that certain brain functions were preserved, as seen by reduced anxiety-like behaviour and better long-term spatial memory. This was concomitant to a decrease in the expression of specific markers of senescence in the brain, which confirms a lower accumulation of senescent cells after BTK inhibition. Our data show that blocking BTK has a modest increase in lifespan in Zmpste24 mice and protects them from a decline in brain performance. This suggests that specific inhibitors could be used in humans to treat progeroid syndromes and prevent the age-related degeneration of organs such as the brain.
- cellular senescence
We previously explored the role of BTK in maintaining multiple myeloma stem cells (MMSCs) self-renewal and drug-resistance. Here we investigated the elevation of BTK suppressing MM cellular senescence, a state of irreversible cellular growth arrest. We firstly discovered that an increased expression of BTK in MM samples compared to normal controls by immunohistochemistry (IHC), and significant chromosomal gain in primary samples. In addition, BTK high-expressing MM patients are associated with poor outcome in both Total Therapy 2 (TT2) and TT3 cohorts. Knockdown BTK expression by shRNA induced MM cellular senescence using β-galactosidase (SA-b-gal) staining, cell growth arrest by cell cycle staining and decreased clonogenicity while forcing BTK expression in MM cells abrogated these characteristics. We also validated this feature in mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (MEFs), which showed that elevated BTK expression was resistant to MEF senescence after serial cultivation [i]in vitro[/i]. Further mechanism study revealed that BTK activated AKT signaling leading to down-regulation of P27 expression and hindered RB activity while AKT inhibitor, LY294002, overcame BTK-overexpression induced cellular senescence resistance. Eventually we demonstrated that BTK inhibitor, CGI-1746, induced MM cellular senescence, colony reduction and tumorigenecity inhibition [i]in vivo[/i]. Summarily, we designate a novel mechanism of BTK in mediating MM growth, and BTK inhibitor is of great potential [i]in vivo[/i] and [i]in vitro[/i] suggesting BTK is a promising therapeutic target for MM.
- multiple myeloma